19 Aug. 75 Rosenthal $10.00
(Braunschweig) Brunschwig, Hieronyms, ca. 1450- ca. 1512. (CXCVI) Klevines Distillierbuch [German]
Strasburg: Johann (Reinbard) Grüninger, 1500, f* 8 May See #263 230 illus. 30x22cm. - in Gothic letters Goff B1227 Hain 4021 - Proctor. 493 GW. 5595
Brunschwig was a physician at Strasburg around 1500. His other works are: Anatomia, the Latin version of this book, Chirurgia 1497, Liber pestilentialis [inserted] printed 1500 by Gruninger H. 4020 [end inserted] de veneris epidemic & Pestbuch 1500.
[inserted] p. 49 History of Printing in Britian [end inserted] Lawrence Andrews began to print in London about 1527, & the works for which he is best known is his own translation of the Ventuose bobe of distyllatyon by Hieronyms von (Jerome of) Braunschweig (Brunswick). There are 2 editions both bearing a date in April 1527 (folios)
- Gruninger appears to have used 30 different types during the 15 Century. [inserted] Z2244 A46R5 Rare Book Collection [end inserted] Francois Ritter - Histoire de l'imprimerie alsacunine aux XVe et XVIe (4 parts) siècles, Strasbourg, Paris, 1955. - Catalogue des Incumables
Jaillet 4 1497 - 1st edition of H. Brunschwig, Das Buch de Chirurgie - Strasburg: J. Grüninger. This was the earliest important work on surgery in German It has 48 woodcuts H.4017
J. Grüninger was the most prolific of Strasburg's printers. He had begun work iin 1483 but produced no noteworthy illustrated books until he came under the influence of Sebastian Brant. (wrote Nauenschiff - The Ship of Fools) The result was his edition of the comedies of Terence published in 1496 1498 Editions of Horace 1502 Virgil
Vol I BMC 19-227 numbered I-CCIX 2 col. 47 lines & headline, 232(243)x153mm Types: 280 title; 145, title, headlines, & c.;98, title & text; 64, inscription of wood cut, fol. LXXXVII. The headlines give the numbers of chapters & books
Johann Gruninger - earliest dated book -> Historia Scholastica of Petrus Comerstor completed 28 Aug. 1483 of Heinrich of Ingweiler. Biblia Germanica - 1485 Biblia Latina - 1492
Jode Voragine Legenda Hierea - 1496 Sermones de sanctis - 1484
last -> German New Testament - 1532.
Jean Reinhard (Grüninger) - place of nigin Grüninger - today Mark-gröninger in Winterberg. estabished at Strasbourg in 1482 after a brief stay at Bâle active press until 1531 - 251 books - mostly illustrated. (after 1494) - son -> Barthélémy Grüninger died between 1531 & 33. Alsace Catalogue p. 33
BMC Gruninger's earliest dated books - Historia Scholastica of Petsus Comestor completed 28 Aug 1483 of Heinrich of Ingweiler
[inserted] a member of the Sauler family [end insertedH. Brunschwig was a practising Strasburg physician, about 1450 to about 1512. The work is divided into 3 parts: the first deals with the methods the equipemtn fo distillation; the 2nd treats of plants & their properties, while the 3rd describes all diseases & gives directions of medication by means of distilled liquids.
Distillieren - contributed significantly to popular knowledge of the techniques of distilling, the medicinal use of plants & the preparation of medical remedies. Treats the new & developing chemistry & pharmacy at the end of the 15th C.
Des Erester buchs I -> XIIII Des anderen buchs XV -> CXXIII *Des II buchs CXXIIII -> CCIX Register
In the 1st part the entire apparatus, of the techniques of distillation are described & illustrated. 2nd part - the plants to be used for distillation are described in alphabetical order. The 3rd paragraph is in many points a mere repetition of the 2nd only in different order, as here the division is made according to the disease, of an account of the water in question for each separate case. In this paragraph the popular character of the book is most clearly seen. The book is however no mere compilation; personal experiences seen through its pages.
20 Aug. 75 Rosenthal $12.00
xpi = Christi g = ergo m = mihi g = igitm eet = essct cu = cum e = est g = sibi
MS leaf Italy 14th C. 9.7x13.5cm - 22 lines [crossed out] Humanistic Text - Cursive leaf from a classical text. [end crossed out] Rounded Gothic book hard of Northern Italy - (xpi.) religious work - moral tales
471.7 441 1) The Origin + Development of a Humanistic Script - B.J. Ullman Rome 1960 Gunst Z 115 I8W3 2) The Script of Humanism - James Wardrop - Oxford 1963. Z115 I8F3 Rare Book Coll. 3)Renaissance Handwriting - Alfred Fairbanks & Berthold Wolpe (London 1960)
Copyists of the early 15C found the standard Roman alphabet insufficient for the expression of thought as then written. Capital letters were only 23 in number; V served for U, I for J, & W was not needed in a Latin book. The lower case characters had been enlarged to 26 by the addition of the long f & the diphthongs æ & œ.
from B.J. Ullman - Humanistic script was, then, inspired by Coluccio Salutali (1330-1406), invented by Poggio Bracciolini, encouraged by Niccolo Niccoli (1363-1437), preferred by the Medici of their imitators among the book collectors, even in far off Britain, sold & promoted by canny book dealers such as Vespasian de Bisticci (1421-1498). It was inevitable that it should be preferred by the early Italian printers.
- The characteristics of Gothic are lateral compression, angularity, what I have called fusion, the overlapping of rounded letters, as in do. In a more cursive form it became the bastanda. To these peculiarities of Gothic may be added the great increase of abbreviations.
p 45 Carter Roman type - on whose capital letters reproduce classical inscriptional models of whose minuscules are made to conform the capitals in their style & construction - a roman type in one that has classical capitals & serifs at the terminals of the straight strokes. B.L. Ullman - humanistic script resembles Cerdingian of the 10 & 11th C. rather than that of the 9 & 12th.
The origin and Development of Humanistic Script Ullman 471.7941 humanistic straight d " f. (final s) - ouster of the Tironien symbol fn et shaped like the figure 7 --> & (our ampersand)
gothic o (unical) Ss - round s in 2 fnms long s, fat in the middle - the distinctive characteristic of bastarda
(Lowe) cardinal rule - if a letter ends with a bow and the following letter begins with one the 2 letters are written conjoint. 7. use of 2 fn and after a letter ending in a bow (Lowe) 2 shaped and (2)
- the restoration of the ae ligature in 2 forms (one in a form familiar today, the other with a subscript a similar to a cedilla) drove out the single e.
Gothic script in Italy tends to be roundish, in France and England it is angular
Round letters stand apart n touch but do not overlap use of spelling mihi michi [inserted] old spelling (medieval) - preferred by Salutali. [end inserted] hihil hichil auctor
Fusion of round letters medieval gathering of 8 leaves vs humanistic gathering of 10.
in our earliest Latin manuscripts abbreviations and ligatures were employed at the ends of lines in order to achieve a relatively straight rt. margin. One device to fill out a short line was to write on i (or we may call it the 1st stroke of an m, n, etc) and then to delete it lightly.- also a ancelled o on large forms of letters such as a round S lying on its back - world division
Poggio accent marks á, é, ó (in adverbs) ct ligature (avoid splitting) final word hyphenation capitals - the 2nd i of ii is taller S and C [illegible] of letter g V is occ. used for a formal humanistic (inventor) of - earliest example 1402 or 3 protype fo the Roman fonts
Majuscules - capital based on inscriptions rather on manuscripts to Poggio, we owe the introduction into humanistic script of square capitals based on inscriptions. (1403-8)
Niccolo Niccoli --> humanistic cursive - the kind of hand that led to the italic type fonts
- At the time of the Roman Republic the alphabet had 21 letters, A T, X, but later the Romans added Y & Z. We have inherited this alphabet of 23 letters, but it was extended to 26 to include J U & W. These 3 additions were made in the Middle Ages & grew from the letters I & V.
The Romans used the same letter V to indicate T (?) vowel & 2 consonant sounds. About the 11th C. scribes began to double it to indicate one of the consonant values. The distinction that we now make between v & u came more gradually & it was not until 1800 that the distinction became absolute in English.
- Phoenician, like Hebrew & Arabic was written from rt. to left. So was very early Greek. Then there was a period of boustrophendonic writing back and forth on alternate lines. Finally both Greeks & Latins settled down to the left to right method which is easiest for rt. handed people In the process the non-symmetrical letters like B, E, P, & R were reversed.
- The Romans required the alphabet from the Greeks by way of the Etruscans.
S. Tamnenbamm p. 148 - In early 16 C. documents we occasionally find an accent or cedilla [inserted] (a small z) [end inserted] under an e to indicate the letter is equivalent to Roman ae (æ). In France the acute, grave, & circumflex accents, which are so characteristic of French orthography, were not known to the "old writers" & that they did not even use the cedilla (or cerilla) under the c (to indicate that the c was to be pronounced like an S).
Pogio -> question marks (~.) sickle shaped; (3.) 2 loops facing to the left DeLa Mare - - used oe & ae diphthongs, instead of the medieval "e" - by 1425 he hardly used diphthongs at all. Satuloli -> e cedilla for "ae"