Haebler - Since Dziatzko has proved that a Luebeck manuscript of the Speculum doctrinale had before 1478 been lent to Rusch in Strasburg for the purpose of printing, the question that Rusch was the printer with the unusual R is regarded as settled.
- in the main, there can hardly be doubt that the printers at Subiaco & Rome & also the earliest printers of Venice knew Rusch's roman type & were influenced by it when designing their own roman type.
The Book McMurtrie f655 M16 - the 1st book to contain a chapter on Medicine was the Opus de universo [inserted] an encyclopedia [end inserted], by Rabanue Maurus [inserted] archbishop of Mauniz (c. 776-856) a pupil of Alcain [end inserted] - A.Rusch, Strasbourg - 1467.
The R [inserted] (type 103) [end inserted] which only needs the addition of a short cross stroke to pass muster as [inserted] Scholderer 50 Essays [end inserted] the monogram AR was intended as a sort of signature of his own initials. None of the books in the R type contain a colophon or date of any kind.
Rusch - type 103 - 2 main groups earliest I. Large folios in double columns of 56 lines to the column - large folio in long lines 49 to page (one book only) II. Med folios in long lines 34-36 to the page (Caracciolus) Sermones - The book is reprinted from the edition of John of Cologne & Marathon of Venice, which was itself printed between Any. 1493 & Dec 1474 A. Rusch - never dated one of his books
- printer 1466? - 1489.
If one compares these earliest roman types, one of another, one is forced to the conclusion that, at best, the type of Wendelum of Spain can be considered the equal of Rusch's, while that of Subiaco, as well as that of Sweynheym & Pannantz in Rome show far more survivals of the Gothic style than A. Rusch's type. - Haebler
HEHL (102802) my caf marked 152 onn. - Towards the end of the book (last folio 173) rubricated in red Index Sermo VII de divina casitate...... car. CXLVI Car. qualit'deres restituit - fo. CXLVI
24 Nov 75 7.50 Argonaut
BMC V p.193 Franciscus (Franz) Renner, de Heilbronn (Germany) Venice  (c 1225-1274) Thomas Aquinas. De veritale catholicae fidei - Incipit tabula capitulos libri contra II gentiles beati (Thome de Aquino.) 1226? - 1294
[inserted] Goff T192 [end inserted] Franciscus Reyner & Nicolaus de Frankfordia (1476) F* & 4* A) Systematic Theology - Summa contra gentiles, sive De veritale catholicae fidei (on the truth of Catholic Faith)
folio & quanto - 286 leaves 2 col. 41 lines 153x106mm (quires are mixed) Types 150 G. first line of text of each book; LXXXII-LXXXIII Latin 75 G text. Capital spaces. Many pages. H. 1386. (center of page)
contain 42 & 43 lines some of the paper water marked on the lower edge. 7 90mm 36mm 23mm rounded with tail level with line single small sloping hyphen S [with]both loops enclosed narrow rough a, broad e
- a printer who did much fine work 1473 Nicolaus de Frankfordia [inserted] for about 5 years (1473) (printed 1473-15160 [end inserted] -> gothic letter 1471-2 roman fonts for about 5 years (1497)
The 1st book connected with Renner's of Heilbronn, Germany press is dated 1471, the 1st to which he put his name is of 1472. From 1473 to 77 he worked in partnership with N. de Frankfordia + [inserted] 16 large books [end inserted] in 1477 + 1478 with Petrus de Bartua. In the course of 1478 he made a fresh start alone + continued to print regularly until 1483. (produced at least 17 books) Franz Renner began 1471 - no book bears his imprint after 1483 - made 9 faces of type - 3 Roman + several sizes of Gothic form _ 2 of his Gothic sizes were very small. Biblia Sacra Latina (1476) 2nd edition of the Bible printed in Venice. Thomas Aquinas was the great systematizer of Roman Catholic thought. -"
Thomas Aquinas, Saint
Italian theologian - b. near Naples - became a Dominican (1244) studied under Albertus Magnus at Paris. liturgical works, commentaries on Aristotle, commentary on the (Sententiae) Sentences of Peter Lombard. (1254-6)
[inserted] against the errors of the non-christians [end inserted] Summa Contra Gentiles (1259-64) - which attempts to put [inserted] is concerned primarily with answering questions raised by Islamic + Jewish philosophers. Much of the content is necessarily philosophical since a cardinal rule with Aquinas is alwasy to debate issues in terms which the disutants will accept. [end inserted] in order for non Christians, the relation between reason & faith.
main work - Summa Theologica (1265-73) (printed by Koberger 1496) unfinished - represents the most complete synthesis of Aristotle [insert] 1st complete printed edition 1485 - Basel - Michael Wenssler. [end inserted]& the Tochings of the early Fathers of the Church. His work is the apce of scholasticion & remains one of the most authoritatice formulations of Christian doctrine.
- reconciled reason & religion - completed the integration of the classical learning & the Christian theology - remains to this day the basis of all Catholic theological teaching.
- a synthesis covering the entire range of Catholic faith specifically for defending the faith, apparently intended for use of Dominican missionaries in Spain - begun at Paris -
- Thomas Aquines - over 300 editions of his separate works in the 15th Century - Summa contra Gentiles - often regarded as his greatest philosophical (as apart from theological) performance.
- a synthesis covering the entire range of Catholic truch specifically for defending the faith.
Briquet Vol 3 p. 589 *# 11757 - 31x43 Brascia, 1421. A.de Stato: Inucoticurarum 7 petals (No hills almost even) faudelium Episc. Briaeie, 1336-1444. # 11760 - 30.5x43 Irente 1455 # 11761 - 30x43 Innsbrook 1466
[inserted] Masterpieces of Catholic Literature ref. library BX 885 M2 p. 385 [end inserted] Summa Contra Gentiles - first transcribed 1259-64 at the request - divided into 4 books. - each divided into chapters - a presentation of Catholic theology, a sapiential & chiefly contemplative effort, & should not be treated as a manual of apologitica or vademecum for missionaries.
Saratoge R 808.8- the first 3 books deal with truths which are accessible to reason, only the fourth seems to consider truths known through revelation.
- a sustained meditation on revealed truth.
Franciscus Renner who at the beginning of his career as a printer preferred to call himself Franciscus de Heilbrunn (from his native town) began to print in Venice as early as 1471; yet during the first years, his activity was not very considerable. Moreover, he used one single roman type. When in 1473 he formed a patronship at N. de Francfordia from his printing office underwent a a complete change. From that time on gothic types are almost exclusively used.
Thomas Aquinas - Of God & his creatures - a translation PR 6015 U 96 Z4 T45f (felton library)
The German printer Nicolaus de Frankfordia was associated with Franciscus Renner de Heilbrunn at Venice from 1473-77. between 1481 & 1489 he printed 17 books on his own account. Rubricated in red & blue S a bit larger than on my leaf -> 97 of 10 (157) Book 3 -> begins 10 verso
- large miniature portrait of Aquinas within the 1st initial in gold & colors. LXXXI - De ordinatioe hominu ad iuice 7 ad alia LXXXIIII - Ox corpa celestia no iprimat i intellectus nostros.
- It is a perfect model of apologetics, showing that no demonstrated truth (science) is opposed to revealed truth (faith)
- Venice - before 1501, 200 master printers - 2 million volumes during 30 yr. period.
25 Franciscan friar Nov. 75 5.00
Franciscus de Platea (Francois Francesco Piazza)[inserted] a theologian from Bologna [end inserted](d. 1424-1460)
Opus restitutionum usurarum et excommunicationum. Johannes de Colonia & Johannes Manthen
BMC V p. 225 * 25 March 1474 Venice HC13038 4, 152 leaves, 2 col. 40 lines (155x107mm) Latin Goff P 755 Type 78G' Capital spaces with guide letters. Catchwords IDL 3704 Pr 4288 on every leaf & marginal paragraph numbers Cornell (?). Librarius, Ithaca, N.Y., Huntington B Maw CL
4*, 152 leaves, 2 col, 22 Jan 1477, 40 lines 151x105mm Type 76G H.13040 Catchwords on last page of most quires - page for page reprint of 1474 except for the table
- this partnership which is a reconstruction of that of J. de Colonia and Vindelinus de Spina (1471-73) produced more than 12 books in 1474, the earliest to a precise late being the Sallust of 23 March 1474, & continued in regular works until 10 Oct. 1485. (published about 80 books)
A) Gothic Types B) Roman Types actually Type 78G - ornate text type (Gothic) an admirative of types S T 2 internal books, round tailed h, flat topped 3, single hyphen.
Mention has already been made of J. de Colonia & his partner J. de Manthen of Gennesheim near Dusseldorf in connection to (Wendelin) 1st Venetian press - Vindelineus de Spira (took over from his brother Johannes de Spira when he died in 1470), whose establishment they took over about the turn of the years 1473&74. Both were businessmen to no special qualifications either as printers or scholars & their productions are undistinguished in comparison to those of Jenson; nevertheless they continued through the remainder of the 70's to be by far the most formidable of his commercial rivals, the 2 firms between them virtually controlling the Venetian book market. J. de Colonia was recently dead when in