Farfel Notebook 01: Leaves 001-064

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21 Oct. 75 Argonaut $10.00

(405x285mm) (18 Nov 1471-26 May 1472)

Nicolaus (c 1270-1349) (d. 1349), de Lyra - Sweynheym + Pannartz H.10363 Goff N131 Rome 1471, 73 fol. 5 vol. -rubricated in red - folio [Expositiones librarum Veteris at Novi Testamenti]

BMC IV 14 *Postilla super totam Bibliam edited by Joannes Andreae [inserted] and corrector of the press [end inserted], Bishop of Aleria.

Conrad Sweynheym (d. 1477) + Arnold Pannartz (d. 1476) - introduced printing to Italy in 1465 (late 1464) - press was set up at the Benedictina house Santa Scholastica [inserted] whose abbot was Cardinal Juan de Turrecremata (opera) [end inserted], at Subiaco - after printing a [crossed out] copy [end corssed out] Donatus [inserted] grammer 300 copies [end inserted], of which one copy is extant, they produced De Divinis Institutionibus of Latantius [inserted] the Greek appearing in this volume was the 1st complete Greek alphabet in printing's short history [end inserted], which was the 1st Italian book to bear a date (1465). Sweynheym was a Mainz clerk who had worked for Schoffer (Prague?), and Pannartz is known to have been a native of Cologne. The Type used by S. + P. was strongly influenced by scrittura umanistica + bears gothic traces. Despite that , it is considered to be the 1st roman type. The capitals are roman, + the lines are spaced more wildely than in gothic. Both these factors helped to incrosse the roman mise en page of the Sabiaco Type. Aside from the Donatus + the Lactantius, only 2 other books were printed at Sabiaco [inserted] birthplace of Benedictine monasticism [end inserted. THese were Cicero's De Oratore + St. Augustine's De Civitati Dei (1467). THe Cicero is thought to have been completed first, but it is undated. After printing the St. Augustine, S. + P. moved their press [inserted] where they cut a new Type -> fully roman. [end inserted] to the place of the de' Massmi (Piero + Francesco) family in Rome (late 1467). There they printed about 48 books [inserted] mostly of 275 copies each [end inserted], working together until 1473(4) + 4 at Subiaco (total 52)

- In 1467 another printer began to work in Rome, Ulrich Han of Vienna. *BMC IV Vol I 262x168-70mm, 292 leaves, Type 115 R [inserted] large text type [end inserted]. Capital spaces. 46ll.

- has an editorial precace by J. Andreae, and a Latin translation of the Letter of Aristeas.

copies Huntington, General Theological Seminary, NYC.

Postilla Vol 1) 18 Nov 1471 - O.T. I Samuel 452 leaves 2) 26 May 1472 452 " 3) 14 Jan 1472 402 " 4) n. d. 234 " 5) 13 March 1472 292 "

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Nicholas of Lyra - French theologian & exegete - born Lyre, Normandy, 1270; died Paris c 1349

by 1309 he was a professor of the Sorbonne where he taught for many years. Deploring the state of Biblical studies in his time, he set out to change them. His chief work, Postillae Perpetuae, sive Brevia Commentaria in Universa Biblica, set forth the literal sense of Scripture, which he considered the most important & decisive one, & the foundation of all mystical interpretations. The Postillae was the 1st Biblical commentary to be printed (Rome 1491-2) & soon became the favorite manuel of exegesis. Martin Luther frequently used Nicholas's works. Nicholas may be called the greatest early Bible scholar after Jerome. ( - Biblia Sacra cum Glossa Ordinaria - )

- Sweynheym is regarded as the designer & engraver of the punches for the types used by the firm. - in 7 yrs. they had printed more than 50 works amounting to 11,475 volumes. Of the Bible 550 copies were printed. 1473 Conrad Sweynheym withdrew from the partnership & associated himself to Arnold Bucking. -2nd type - the short final S was not engraved, the old form of long f apprearing at the end as well as at the beginning of a word. The i is not dotted, the lower case a is squat & of an unpleasing form. Some vowels carry accents.

- Lactantius - 1465 - earliest successful use of Greek in printing Nicholas of Lyra - comes toward the end of a long line of scholarly commentators who built up in the Middle Ages the immense body of commentary on the scriptures known as the Glossa Ordinaria. - Before the days of printing 'Additiones' were made to the Commentaries of Lyra by Paul of Burgos (1350-1435.) See #92

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22 Oct 75 Argonaut 7.50

- native of Carthage (Sancta Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi)

Isidorus, Hispalensis, Saint, Archbishop of Seville (c. 560-636)

De summo bono. Cypriani liber de duodecim abusius speculi (undated, not after 1472) 1470? quarto no watermark, 136 leaves, 29 lines, 148x84mm Type 96 (110) [inserted] Proctor type 1 - both forms of h+t early + late. [end inserted] one to 4 line spaces 1st for capitals HC 9281+5899 [inserted] BMC I 187 Goff I-193 Polain (B) 2142 1464 -> ca 1503 Oates 346 (210mm) [end inserted] Ulrich Zell: Cologne [a-r8] voull (K) 704 Latin

Prologos Apocalipsis Iohannis Apostoli Sententiae Incipit tabula primi libri & dictur speculi. 6 4

Isidore of Seville (St.) Bp and Dr. (Isidorus Hispalensis) c. 560?-636 A native of Cartagena, in Spain, & brother to SS Leander, Fulgentius & Florentina. He was educated by St. Leander whom he succeeded in the see of Seville in 600. He presided over several synods, reorganized the Spanish Church, encouraged monastic life, completed the Mozarabic liturgical rite, was responsible for the Degree of the Council of Toledo in 633, & was himself an encyclopaedical writer on theology, scripture, biography, history, geography, astronomy, & grammar. Declared Doctor of the Church by Benedict XIV.

Chronica - a general history to his own day. Historia Gothorum - a history of the Gotha De Natura Rerum, Differentiae, Quaestiones in Vetus Testamentum, See #95 Etymologiae or Origines. (the Encyclopaedia Britannica of the Middle Ages)

He was the most prolific & versatile Spanish writer of Christian antiquity, called "the Schoolmaster of the Middle Ages." He became the national hero of the Spanish Church. [inserted] See #26 [end inserted]Catholic encyclopedia p. 675 BX 842 C25 [end [inserted]Catholic encyclopedia p. 675 BX 841 C25 [end inserted]The Sententiarum libri tres is the 1st collection of medieval sentences and systematic body of doctrine and pastoral practice and was inspired by the works of Augustus & Gregory I. - the greatest scholar of the Visigoths. BM and CL. copies Huntington, Yale Univ. Library Harvard College Library New Haven, Conn. Houghton. Library Cambridge, Mass "Sentaniae" -> Little proverbs or maxims tersely expressed. "Summum Bonum" - The highest good; a subject of much philosophical speculation

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(c 1422-1491) William Caxton is thought to have learned the craft of printing from Ulrich Zell, a priest from Mainz who had established Cologne's 1st press (produced no less than 120 titles)

At Cologne printing had begun early - some time before 1466 c U. Zell. Zell printed in an excellent eventype mostly quarto volumes of practical use to priests. A local rival to Zell rose in Arnold [inserted] printed over 90 books [end inserted] ther Hoernen who used pagination for the 1st time in printing history BMC In 1464 Urich Zel of Hanau, Clerk of the diocese of Mainz, matriculated in the Univ. of Cologne. In 1466 he published an edition, signed & dated, of S. Chrysostom's Super psalmum Miserere. Zel continued working to the end of the century, & is believed to have died in soon after 1507. (d. 1501)

Type 96 - text type, recast after 1467 on a body measuring 99, leaded to 106-111. At first the h is round, then between 1467 & 1469, a tailed h was introduced & mixed [with]the former; in 1472 I from Type 113 begins to be mixed [with] that of this type.

Haebler - Zell - learned the act of printing in Fust & Schoeffers printing office - each of his earlier 3 Types contains far more than 200 sorts as, for all possible abbreviations & ligatures, special forms had been cut.

Cologne - the most populous town of medieval Germany - nearly all the books published were [inserted] vernacular printing did not flourish in this district of Germany. [end inserted] in Latin - more than half were theological writings - hostility of the university teachers to humanistic learning.

Ulrich Zel - some 200 books to his credit - seldom produced large folio volumes, but made a specialty of small quartos dealing in the main & minor theological works & sermons.

- a student of the Univ. of Cologne, who established the 1st press there by 1466; Cologne thus became the 4th European city to have a printing press.

A summary of Theology in the Divine Attributes or Virtues & Vices.

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23 Oct. 75 Argonaut 10.00

R-Press Type 1 (? Johann Mentelin and/or Adolf Rusch)

Caracciolus (Robertus) de Licio (1425-1495), Bishop of Aquino (not after 1475) Adolf Rusch: Strasburg, 1470? fol. (undated) [inserted] Goff C-138 BMC I 63 GW 6064 [end inserted] Sermons per Adventum, etc. (Sermons de adventa) 174 leaves, 35 lines to a page, 181x116mm Type 103 2, 4, & 5 line spaces for capitals H.4490 Latin Capitals, paragraph marks, initial strokes & underlines, supplied in red copies Yale, Huntington, Library of Congress, Rose Book Dis., Wash.DC.

- one of the earliest books printed in Germany & Roman type. Caracciolo, Roberto, noted Franciscan preacher; born Lecu, Kingdom of Naples, 1425; died there May 6 1495.

- was for about 50 yrs the most celebrated preacher in Italy, and was sometimes referred to as a "2nd Paul" 1495 he was made bishop of Aquila, but in 1497 he was transferred to the Sec & Title of Aquino. Some of his earliest publications were gathered together in his Opera varia (Venica 1479) & more complete collections appeared later

BMC - Works 1) Collection of Sermones 2) Confessio -listed 3) Quadragesimale {de Peccatis de Poententia #93 Volgana 4) Sermones de Laudibus Sanctorum 5) " " Trinore Divinorum Judiciorum *6) " per adventum, Etc. [inserted] contains the legend on which Mitton founded his Paradise Lost [end inserted] 7) Specchio Della Fede.

R printer -> 26 books (all without printed date) - that this Roman type was not approved by the ordinary German book buyer may be inferred from the R printers subsequent preference for Semi gothic types. - 1st roman letter used in Germany

Barely remembered today, Caraccioli was among the 1st living authors to appear in printer & recognise the power of the press. He wrott 6 collections of sermons all of which became instant best-sellers.

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