until 1528. -Euclid -the oldest scientific textbook in teh world -its system remained unchallenged util Lobatchewaky's work was published in 1829. (1st to challenge the universality of Euclidean geometry, notably that the axiom on parallel lines was there only if the earth was flat) Initials set 2 - CFILOPQSV set 5 - several hundred ABCDEFILNoPQRST 10 forms of S set 6 - S, 3 forms, used to supplement set 5 where more than 10 are required at once.
Euclid -born around the beginning of the 3rd C, possibly in Alexandria -"but in geometry all must go the same way. There is no royal road to learning" -the 1st 4 books deal to plane geometry; the 5th part, one of the high points of Greek mathematics deals to rations which became the bane of mathematicians for many centuries. These fellow books on arithmatic, solid geometry, Plato's famous polyhedra to which he eguated all physical phenomena. The present text is considered the 1st ed. even though it is Campano (later known as Johannes Camperus) of Novara's rendering from Arabic, not Greek, into Latin. Like many of the Greek classics, Euclid 1st reentered Europe through translation from the Arabic caried out of Spain. In fact Campano relied on one such translation of Euclid done by Adelard of Bath. Compano's Version was itself later revised by L. Paciol: who demonstrated the importance of Euclid to Renaissance artists using principle of purspective in their work. Pacioli's Euclid was issued in Venice in 1509 partly in response to Zamberti's translation of 1505 which assailed the "barbarous" Campano + boasted of the new translators knowledge of Greek. -600 or so sharp edged woodcut and/or type rule marginal diagrams.
T.L. Heath The 13 Books of Euclids Elements 3 vol. Cambridge, 1908. R. Graves -Penguin ed 1950 Elements (Stoichcial 13 books) THe oldest mathematical textbooks sitll in common use today. 1-6 - plane geometry 7-9 - on the theory of numbers 10-on irrational numbers 11-13 on solid geometry (Books 14+15 see are by Hypricles (fl. 2nd C B.C.) + a pupil of Isidors of Siville, respectively) -in the version of Campano de Novara, a translation from Arabic into Latin presumably derived from the 12th C translation of Abelherd of Bath together to notes by Campano. -First e. One of the earliest printed books to geometrical figures. Ratdolt's method of printing diagrams to illustrate a mathematical text + his equally beautiful astronomy books became the models for subsequent scientific publishing. -There is doubt whether the diagrams are woodcuts: some or all may have been produced from metal lines. -There is doubt whether the diagrams are woodcuts; some or all may have been produced from metal lines. -7 copies fo the works are recorded which have the dedication leaf of the book printed in Gold, Radold was one of 2 printers in the 15th C. to have used the technique for gold printing; the other was Zacherias Callierges, a Getan who also worked in Venice. -Ratdolt here solves the technical problem of producing the essential marginal diagrams together to the text which had hitherto prevented the printing of Euclid - Ratdolt was one fo the most original + accomplished of the early printers. Type 91 G-med. text type, rather narrow plain Capitals. Large waved F, large I to thorn to left. Min 2 parts. Single step hyphen. Captials from 92 G sometimes found admixed. In use 1481+82. 56(75)G - small text type to plain capitals. F is too large + senated to left. Slaping double hyphen. In use 1481+2.
123 Stanford Book Fair Sept. '81 J.S Edgen (Cormel) $40.00
Format: 6 columns of 17 characters Border: Single 25.5x11.3cm 30 columns to the sheet [Sung Printing] Fo-Shuo Fo-Mu Ch'U Sheng San-Fa- Ts'ang Po-Jo Po-Lo-Mi-To Ching Chuan (chapter) Ch. 5 Huchou (distinct) 12th C. 29x11.4cm - single page from accordian binding Ssu-ch'i Tripitaka edition(Ex Zenko-in temple, Nara, Japan.) regular script (This book was from the collection of the Zenko-in Temple in Nara Japan.) Northern 960-1126 Southern 1127-1279 In quality, the block printing of the Sung epoch (960-1280) has never been surpassed. The importance of calligraphy to the book leaves of the day is shown by the fact that in almost all Sung editions, the names of the calligrapher who prepared the copy is recorded in the colophon along with the author + printer. -high tide of chinese block printing -960-1368. -before the Tsung dynasty (618-707) all books were manuscripts, the art of printing not being in existance. -Sung era - the printing of the Buddhists, the Taoists + 2 minor religious groups - the Manicheans + Moslems went on side by side with the Confuccian + secular. of these, the Buddhist deserves printing, for it was Buddhist printing that spread to Japan + to Central Asia, + in China itself, it was the Buddhists who printed the freatest single work of which we have record - The Tripitaka (972-83). -The whole Buddhist Canon - contained both the sacred scriptures that had been translated from the Sanskrit + a smaller number that had been written independently in Chineese. This collection consisted of 50 48 volumes covering 130,000 pages. This massive work together with additions was reprinted frequently during the Sung. In the 11-13C there were 9 additional printings of the Chinese Tripitaka, the last one made in the yrs 1277-94, numbering 7182 scrolls. -folded book form- usually used for Buddhist scriptures. -development + spread of block printing in Eastern Asia during the 4 C before the art first made its appearance in Europe. works- pu chapter chuan wrappers han or chih.
The Invention of Printing in China + its Spread Westward Thomas F. Carter 2nd ed. (1955) 094.151 C325 Stack Benden Ref Z186 C5C3 bloack printing - material used is usually pear or jujube wood - no press whatever is used in their printing - the thin paper recieves the impression with a gentle contact - the paper, being so thin + transparent is printed on one side only. (European - bookprinting on both sides of the paper with the comparatively heavy indentations made from metal types) Zang - Tripitaka - the Sanskrit name for the Buddhist canonical literature - means 3 baskets or repositories -first written down in the Pali language shortly after 43 BC in Ceylon. I. Pali Tripitaka 1)Vinaya pitaka - containing the rules (discipline 2) Sutta " - containing the parables + sermona (discoures) of Buddah (died c. 483 B.C.) The Sutters are the most beautiful + famous of Buddhist writings 3) Abhidharma pitaka - containing the doctrine (metaphysics) II. Sanskrit Tripitaka.
Diamond Sutra - earliest extant pritned book (868) - the favorite book with printers of China, Japan + Central Asia.
Sui 581-618 Tang 618-907 Five Dyasties - + Tan Kingdoms 907-979 Sung (?) 960-1279 Liao 916-1125 Western Asia 1038-1227 Kin 1115-1234 Yuan 1271-1368 Ming 1368-1644 Ching 1644-1911 Chinese Landscape Woodcuts 1968 Max Loche Art Lib. Stanford NE 1)83 L6 Sutra - thread, string of rules, aphorisms - one of the [crossed out] Buddhist [end crossed out] namative parts of the Buddhist canonical literature, especially the dialogues of the Budda.
Treasures of the Library of Congress A 708.153 G65 (Santa Clara) The scrolls were hand copied from each other (as the medieval vellum manuscripts had been). The day of teh scroll ran from tabout the year 428 AD to 1000AD. About the year 1000 the scroll began to yeild to folded panels in much the way the Vellum rolls became the codex in the West. In the West the folded scroll became the codex, the folded page became a single sheet with writing on front + back, + the sheets became a book sewn at the spine. In the East because the brush written characters were so folded with black ink that they immediately soaked through to the back of the pages, the fold had to be retained. Thus the Chinese book continued as a single series of folded pages right up to modern times. Every "page" in a traditional Oriental volume is written on one side with either nothing or smudges on the other. Chinese printing is the story of block printing. In Europe printing is moveable Type. In Europe it was simpler to (?bup?) 26 letters + make up words as they were needed. But this would not work for Chiese because of the nature of the written words, it required at least one or 2 characters for every word + were as early as 1300 the printer had to stock over 30,000 different characters to cope with even a basic vocabulary. The result of all these complexities, was that for centuries byond the time the Europeans were setting type, the Chinese + the Japanese were still cutting single page wood blocks - but the revese was that for centuries before the Europeans began to print books at all, printed bookds were common througout the Orient. -Whereas the introduction of printing in the West expedited the reduction in the number of characters used by the scribe, in the East printing (by woodblock) allowed for a continnation of the vast number of characters still in use Today.
Bunyiu Narjio - Catalogue of Chinese Translations of the Tripitaka Oxford 1883 Ref Z7059 N18. *