25 Jan. '82 Eichenberger Gift.
Horace Beatae Mariae Virginis (Livre d'Heures) ? Pigouchet Paris: Gillet Hardouyn (about) um 1518. - printed on vellum inl lettre batarde, 40, 22 lines 4 1/4x6 7/8 folio p. 44 Metal decorative + pietoral borders (118x175mm) Ruled. Psalm 125: Qui confident. 124 (4) (3) Benedictus Dominus Liquid-gold initials on alternate red + blue grounds. The invention of printing, wich is often claimed to have killed the art fo illumination, increased rather than decreased the vogue for Books of Hours. But it was in the form of printed editions that they achieved their widest diffusion during the 16th C. 20 lines = 95-6mm. Outer formes printed on the flesh-side, inner formes on the hair-side of the vellum sheets. -The most extensice development of the manuscript tradition of border illustration is seen in the historisted + decorated wood block borders of French Book of Hours prited at the end of the 15th + the beginning of the 16th C Since the series of illustrations for the major text divisions allowed little variation of subject matter, printers + publishers used the borders as a means of making thier work more individual, adding much new imagery, both sacred + profane.
The Herdouyn house published books of Hours from 14971538 + became known for its delicate + artful illumination.
end 1/3 third of Hours end of ad Sextam - Deus in adiutorium meum intende before Nonam (Same)
126 Sept. '82 J.S. Edgrer, Carmel $20
(Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government) Tzu-chih t'ung-chien (Chinese history) Korean edition printed with bronze moveable types 3rd Korean font (Kabinja, cast 1434) and carved wooden types, printed c. late 16-17 century. whole folio. Format: 10 columns of 17 characters Border:double, 25.8x18.4cm. (1/2folio) Size of type face L. 1.4x1.6cm S. 1.4x0.8cm
-200,000 Types were cast for this first font of kabinga, and its attractive appearance + general popularity led to its being imitated several times during the Yi dynasty. (1392-1910) It is also known as wibuinja. -By the 16th C many of the original kabinga Types of 1434 were worn beyond use, or were otherwise missing, and it became the practice to carve temporary replacements. This mixed use of metal + wooden Types is found increasingly until their destruction of the time of Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592.
The change of dynasties (1392) resulted in a stimulus to book publishing which culminated in the 1st official bronze font being cast in 1403. These Types were called kyemija after the cyclical name, kyemi, for that year (this system of naming fonts was used througout the period). It should be borne in mind that printing with metal types was a government monopoly in the Yi dynasty + that woodblocking printing continued unabeted at the same time. Note also that most of the books were written entirely in Chinese, which served as the standard literary medium, much as Latin did in Europe at one time. In 1455, contemporary with Gutenberg's activity in Europe the Koreans cast their sixth metal font called Tuhuja. Kabinja - first of the early Types, remained in use for the longest period.
Hervouet A. Sung Bibliography Ref Z 3102 rostm S77 p69-75 Tzu-chid t'ung chien 294 ch. (written 1067-1084) "Comprehensive Mirror of Good Gov't or to aid in government" -has the character of annals, covering the period from 403 BC until 959 AD - altogether a period of 1362 years the author listed teh events he considered worth mentioning the chronological order (eventually became the source for orthodox historiography.) Tze-chih, t'ung chien, kang mu. 59 ch., Show (?), 1 ch. (1172) "The String + Mesh of the Comprehensive Mirror or of good Gov't for the Aid of Government" by Chu Hsi* (1130-1200) This work is doubtless the most influrntial piece of historical writing in the Imperial age. The "kang my" begins from the "Tzu-chih t'ung chien". It transformed a great work of history into a textbook of political ethics. (1019-1086) Spu-Ma Kusng - A statesman who took the highest degree + rose to be a Minister of State. He resigned, however, in order to devote himself to his famous work known as the "Mirror of History" which covered a period from the 5th C. BC to the 10th C A.D. 1130-1200 Chu Hsi* The most voluminous + one of the most luminous of Chinese authors. He successfully introduced interpretations of the Confucism books, either wholly or partly at variance with those which had been put forth by the scholars of the Han dynasty + hitherto recieved as infallible thus modifying to a certain extent the prevailing standard of political + social morality. His principle was simply one oof consistency. Consequently, his are now the only authorised interpretations. Shih (Scholars) -From the beginning, the Korean Gov't appears to have preferred typographic to xylographic printing, while the Chinese continued to rely on woodblock methode B.M. 1234 - earliest recorded use of metal moveable type in Korea China 1st (ceramic movable Type 1040. [margin] Gems of Chinese Literature - Herbert A. Giles 895.108 Saratoga [end margin]
127 Feb. '82 J.S. Edgren, Carmel $20
Shiki Shih-chi (Historical Annals - Chinese history) by Ssu-ma - 145-86BC the Herodotus of China. Ch'ien of the Han period (206BC-AD220) Japanese edition printed with wooden movable Types with 1615 1 folio. Typographic ed. Format: 8 columns of 17 characters Border: double, 23.5x18.2 cm. (-added reading marks in red) Most of the printing in Japan up to the end of the Muramachi period (1333-1573) was concerned with Buddhism + the method used was xylography. After Hideyoshi's campaign in Korea, types + printing equipment which had actively been used there entered Japan were on the model of the imported ones, but were made of wood. Many individuals + institutions supported the new printing - temples, priests, artists, + other notables. Books published duing this (c.1590-1650) period are known as ko-katsiyi editions. All genuine specimens of ko-katsiyi books are conoummate examples of Japanese book art, + were prited during the Bunnrokw (1592-1596) Keicho (1596-1615), Gunne (1615-1624), + Kan'ei (1624-1644) periods. For unknown reasons this flourishing printing activity was abruptly discontinued about 1647, + woodblock printed books became preferred again. Thus ended the age of "incunabula" in Japan
The period of moveable ytpe supremacy lasted only from 1600 to 1640, althought it was introduced earlier + continued in diminishing use until about 1650. THe advent of moveable type was probably the most significant single occurance in the development of printing up until then. The signifigance lay not so much in the techonlogy of moveable type, which ultimately proved less advantagous to the Japanese than the traditional wood block method, but in the variet of uses ro whcih it was put. By 1650,
*moveable Type did not reach Japan before the end of the 16th C, as there was certainly frequent contact between the 2 countries before then.
almost all the major classics of Japanese literature were in print for the 1st time. Bt 1650 too, the art of book illustration for its own sake had evolved + printing had become a commercial process, bringing the note of the Buddhist monasteries in printing to a gradual end. -Movable type reached Japan from 2 independent sources almost simultaneously, one origin was Portugal (Jesuit Mission Press - 1591-1611) + the other Korea. The Korean introduction was much once signigagant + confrormed to teh traditions of East Asian cultural development. It should be mentioned that the technique of movable pritning was invented in Sung Chine (960-1279) where it was never used much + brought to Korea where it functioned alongside traditional wood block printing It is a curious fact that * -All early Kokatouji-ban were printed versions of textes both Chinese + Japanese, which had been in existance for a long time, but by 1624, with the era of commercail publishers drawing , it became common for works to be written specially for publication. Naturally between 1596+1644, there was also a considerable development in type faces. -Aside form official printing, tere were 3 other categories that relied ofn movable type: private printing canied out in Buddhist temples at the expense of a wealthy sponsor; Buddhist text printed in temples as in the 1st instance, but using moveable Type, instead of, or alongside, traditional methods; + private printing carried out on a commercial basis. The very fact tha movable type was introduced from Korea naturally gave official circler first use of it, althought Temples followed closely behind. Sau-Ma Ch'ien - Author of the 1st general History of China. The work begins with the reign of Huang Ti, the Yellow Emperor (2697 BC) + closes with teh year 104BC As a youth he had traveled widely througout the empire. He finally settled down as Gran Astrologer; but his spirited defense fo Li Ling when over thrown + captured by teh Huns, brough down upon him the wrath of the Emporer. He was subjected to punishment of mutilation, + ended his days in disgrace He reformed the calendar + determined the chronology which still distains in China.