Farfel Notebook 02: Leaves 065-134

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Cuneform {inserted]Latin word for wedge - cuneus[end inserted] - oldest of all known systems for writing - conceived & developed in S. Babylonia or Sumer In addition to Hieroglyphs the Egyptians employed 2 other scripts both descended from Hieroglyphs , called by the Greeks hieratic (priestly) & demotic (peoples) - always written from rt. to left in contrast to Hieroglyphics which could be written in either direction The Alphabet 1) Egyptian hieroglyphs 2) Semitic alphabet - 1st dev. between 2000 & 1500 BC area of Syria - Palestine 3) Greek & Roman / standard Babylonian , a / literary dialect of Akkadian , a Semitic language Canon tables - found in most early copies of the gospels a system devised in the 4th C for locating parallel passages in the 4 Gospels. MS 39602 AD 980. Gospel lectionary - contains the Lessons for each day from Easter to Pentecost , but only the Lessons for Sat. & Sun. for the rest of the year . It also has the lessons for the festivals & commemorations of the saints for the Byzantine civil year , beginning on 1st Sept.

Maggs Cat. - 1928 Gutenberg Bible leaf 52L 10S
Catholican leaf 65L
Epistles & from the Gospels. Anti phonals - chants for Devine Office - primarily verses from the psalms & Gospels called , antiphons. Durant The illumination of manuscripts had been practiced in Pharaonic & Ptolemaic Egypt & had passed thence to Hellenistic Greece & Rome.

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Ancient Canons of the Universal Church General Council of Nicaea 325AD 20 Canons " " Constantinople 381 7 " " Ephesus 431 8 " " Chalcedon 451 30 Procincal Council of Ancyra 314 25 " " Neocaesarea >314 15 " " Gangra with 340 21 " " Antioch 341 25 " " Laodicea with 365 60

Printing order Mind of Man Ptolomy - in his Geography he showed the earth to be a perfect sphere with land + water intermingled, gave a table #103 of longitude + latitude of 8,000 places in the world + first made technical use of the terms parallel + meridian. His mistaken estimate of the extent of the Asiatic Continent induced Columbus to tracel westwards. Dante + Milton both organized their works round his cosmic system; it occurs frequently in Chaucer.

-By 1500 Europe possessed an estimated 9 million books, compared with fewer than 100,000 hand wrought manuscripts some 50 years before. No other invention has so thoroughly or so rapidly - revolutionized intellectual life + society.

The 1st letters of the Greek words "Jesus Christ, God's Son, Saviour" spell "fish" Thus, the fish was an early symbol for Christ.

The vision of Ezikiel 1:5,10 out of the midst thereof came the likeness of 4 living creatures - as for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of man - the face of a lion - the face of an eagle - the face of an ox "was interrupted as referring to the 4 evangelists

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-The Benedictine Rule, because of its balance between prayer work + study, provided very suitable conditions for the pursuit of learning. The Cluniacs were too occupied with lithurgical duties + the Cistercians with manual work, to be able to devote much time to study + thus produced only a comparatively small number of writters + thinkers of distinction. -An average copyist would produce 3-6 folios a day + that to copy the bible one whole year was required. -Clumsy had in the 12th C about 500 books, Reicheman about 1000, Christ church at Canterbury 600.

Schools of Carelingian illumination 1) Pulatine or Aix - earliest, flourished during Charlemagne's reign Byzantine in style 2) Ada group - based in Trier, made for royal patrons, used lavish materials 3) Tours - under Aleuin, mingles Irish geomechic designs with the animal forms popular among Merovinngian illuminations 3) Reimz school - Utrent psalter, the drawing is lively + naturalistic 13th C Gothic illumination - growth of border ornament + particularlu of marginal scenes. Humans, binds + animals which before were entangled in the Romanesque interwoven space of the initial scroll, gradually freed themselves + escaped into the borders. In this way much of the imaginative fantasy + curiosity which in the Romanesque period had gone into the initials, wa now channelled into the border ornament - the evolution of a hierachy of decoration - the decorated borders began to form a transition from the painted miniature to the printed, gilded initial, + the further transition to the text written in black or brown ink was effected by the penwork initials with their filigree ornament usually executed in red + blue. The penwork may sometimes have been executed by the scribes but there were also specialists for this work such as Jacquet Maci in Paris. These penwork initials developed out of the -

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to the Middle Ages art was didactic; writes Male. 'All that it was necessary that men should know - the history of the world from creation, the dofmas of religion, the examples of the saints, the hurarchy of the virtues, the range of the sciences, arts + crafts - all these were taught them by the windows of the church, or by the status in the porch ... Through the medium of art the highest conceptions of theologian + scholar penetrated to some catent the minds of men the humblest of the people.

P. 191 Pantim The starting point of the manuals of instruction is the legislation of the Lateran Council of 1215 + particularly the degree Omnis 274.2 P.197 Stanford utriusque sexus, making annual confession to the Parishpriest + annual communion at Easter obligatory or all Christians. Pafes 195-217 14th C manuals for parish priests 1) Ucules sacerdotis - William of Pagula - Vicar of Winkfield, near Windsor in 1314 other works - Summa summarum, Speculum prelatorum + S. religiosorum 2) Cilium Oculi - ? date + author 30 Speculum Curatorum - ascribed to Ranulph Higden monk of Chester, the author of the Poly chronicon, who died in 1364. 4) Regimen Animarum - 1343. 5) Memoriale Presbiterorum - 1344. 6) Archbishop Thoresby's 'Instructions' of York (1352-73) 7) Pupilla Oculi - John de Bergo - Chancellor, Cambridge 1385, 8) Works of John Mink with 1400. secondary, arabisque initials of Romanesque manuscripts. Contemporaries Knew them as literae florissae is flourished letters or letters fleuronus Initials at all times also had a function as a signpost to the reader, signaling divisions of the text.

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Gloss came to have the increasingly specialized meaning of a short comment inserted into the margin or between the lines of text or of a collection of glosses of this kind. Postilla - appears in the 13th C & normally means a commentary which originated in the classroom , but can be used more widely . A collectar contains the Collects or prayers , & the chapters along - subsidiary matter depending much upon the date & place which a particular manuscript might have been written . Unlike Missals & psatlers no standard text. of the collector seems to have been established & by The 14th C the more useful elements were absorbed by The Braving or one of the other liturgic books. ideogram - phonogram - syllabic hieratic - phoenician - athenian / 403 BC) read - pointed broad pen - l of pen 90' Hebrew ( gives thick horizontal) look at the white spaces 30' to horizontal - for beauty not the black gives thin horizontal line 10' - Book of Kells ( Insular) A folio is a book printed on sheets of paper that are folded once before being bound Twice " " " - quarto. All solemn papal letters were called bulls because they were closed - a seal or "bulla" . In time the term bulla extended from the seal to the papal degree itself "Litterae notabiliores" began each line - as of ten in manuscripts of poetry. A------ C -------- R --------

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