The Ganges Canal; [manuscript].

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The foregoing included 255 miles of main canal, 73 miles of branch, and the necessary machinery for converting the main into a navigable line. The return which was calculated on the average of that from the irrigation canals on the Sumna, was estimated at about 10 percent on the outlay. With reference to the obstruction from the Ganges of large bodies of water, which would be the first effect of the executionof the proposed canal it became an object at this period of the enquiry to establish gauges at different points on the river, and to obtain as many measurements of discharge as opportunities offered. Water gauges for measuring the rise and fall of the surface of the river were established at Kundwar, [Gurmookkhteesin ?], [Juttergurh ?], [Caunpoor ?], and Allahabad; the registers of these gauges with the exception of the two first, which were entrusted to native [?], were kept by the engineers or civil officers of the stations; The Kundwar, [?]teesin and Allahabad gauges, were discontinued in consequence of disarrangement by floods, and doubts as to the dependence to be placed on the records, but those at [Juttehgurk ?] and [Caunpoor ?] which are to be found in the atlas, may be depended upon, and for the last 10 years will give a new accurate representation of the rise and fall of the rivers surface

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From a series of measurements for discharge taken by myself at a point on the Ganges just above Kundwar, I calculated that the discharge which might be considered a minimum at that point was equal to 8000 cubic feet per second, an amount that did not differ in any great degree from that which was formerly given by Captain Herbert from measurements taken by him about 10 years before when he was employed on the Himalayan survey. At the [Gurmookhteesun Ghat ?], a point situated below the shingle, a set of observations was made by Capt. A. S. [?] Bengal engineer simultaneously with those at Kundwar the time selected was early in March when the river is supposed to be at its lowest, and just before the melting of the snow of the mountains leads to a rise in the surface, I hoped by making these measurements in March to obtain the minimum discharge of the river, and the uniformity of the results of different trials gave me great confidence. There results were as follows:Discharge for second Kundwar 1st March 1842 = 7166.1891 Gurmookteesun 1st Do = 8685.2194 2nd Do = 8883.195 25th February 1842 = 8681.894 Gurmookteesun is situated 95 miles south of Kundwar and the excess of volume at the former point is to be accounted for by the river having in its course received all the drainage of

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of the [Khadin ?], including that from the [Puttir ?], the [Solani ?] with its tributaries, and the different smaller lines both on the right and left banks of the river. The results of the measurement at Kundwar it will be observed [?] that in the driest season of the year, we might depend upon 7000 cubic feet per second, and the establishment of gauges at different points on the course of the river would hereafter, when a body of water had been abstracted for canal puposes, shew the effects of that abstraction on the surface level of the river. The Government of India having been satisfied of the advantage that the high land of the Doub would derive from the introduction of irrigation and being convinced by the plans and surveys of the practicability of overcoming any engineering difficulties that might occur in the [Khadin ?]; recommended to the count of Directors that the works should be designed on a scale capable of taking the fullest advantage of the supply available at Kundwar. The count in their despatch dated 1st September 1841 recognize the importance that is attached to works for irrigation and to their financial benefits, and observe that "apart from the con"sideration of financial results, "which we are far from contemplating "with indifference, there are few "measures connected with our revenue

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"revenue administration in India, "more calculated to contribute to the "general improvement of the country, "the [? elination] of the condition "of the people, and to raise the "character of the Government, than "those of the native now under our "consideration; we concur in opin"ion with the Government of Agra "that a higher ground for advocating "these works is found in the security "which they afford against famine "and its attendant [honors ?]" "Two "years" Mr Robertson remarks Mr Thomas Campbell Robertson "have scarcely passed since the [?] of the N. W. P. from "very country through which the to "proposed canal will be excavated, "was laid waste by a famine, which "cost the lives of thousands and "presented a scene of suffering still "fresh in the recollection of all classes; "to such another visitation the canal "will afford a palliation if not a "remedy" "Influenced by these "considerations which are strengthened "by the observations contained in the "minute of the Governor General "dated 3rd April 1841, and relying "on the discretion of your Government "with reference to the period of com"mencing and in carrying this "project into execution with due cau"tion, and with a strict regard to "economy, consistent with the im"portance of the work, we have re"solved to give our sanction to the "proposed undertaking on such a "scale as may be consistent with "safety to the works, and the accom"plishment of the important objects "contemplated in their construction" On

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32 On the receipt of the dispatched from which the above is an extract, a committee consisting of Major Abbott of the Bengal engineers as President, with Captain Baker of the Bengal engineers and myself as members, was directed to proceed to the ground and report on the efficiency of the proposed works, the probable success of the undertaking, the scale on which it should in the first instance be carried on, and the precise measures to be recommended for adoption; the letter conveying this order was dated Military Board Office [24?] th November 1841 and on the 7th of February following, the committee report was submitted to the Government. I may remark here that the attention of the committee had also been called to the following points: 1st the probable effects of the abstraction of the maximum supply of water on the navigation of the Ganges. 2ndly The probable cost of extending the canal to Allahabad. 3rdly The probable return from the work. On the first of these points I shall have more to say hereafter, but in the meantime, the committee when recommending the abstraction of 6750 cubic feet per second, or very nearly the whole of the supply in the river at Kundwar owing the driest months, came to the following conclusions founded on the analagous example of the river Sumna; "owing 2 months; January and February of each year;" the committee remarks "The whole apparent supply is diverted

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