The Ganges Canal; [manuscript].

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Part, I

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Part I

Historical sketch of the origin and Progress of the Ganges Canal

Chapter I

Preliminary Period under the Directorship of Lieut Colonel P.T. Cautley From 1839 to 1845 The direction of the drainage on the Southern slopes of the Himalayas throughout the [?] Provinces of Upper India lying to the North West; the character of the rivers which constitute this drainage; and the topographical features of the country through which it passes; point out by unmistakeable signs, a region designed by nature as a great field for artificial irrigation. These rivers after their debouche from the mountains enter upon a champaign country with a rapidly decreasing slope and from the [?] parallel direction which they assume in their passage to the Indus on one side, and to the Ganges on the other, divide the country into sections of a larger or smaller width, all of which both in soil and declivity of surface possess in themselves every requisite for

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for irrigation. The steep slopes that exist at the immediate [debouche ?] from the mountains [?] the engineer by a proper adaptation of levels in his artificial channels, to obtain a command of water, which places the whole country under his control, the benefits in fact he is able to confer upon it by means of irrigation, are limited by the volumes of water which are at his disposal and his greatest, it may be said his only difficulties are in the neighborhood of these steep slopes, and in their connections with mountain [torrents ?]. From the above description it will be evident that a canal whose [head ?] supply is derived from the higher levels of these rivers, and whose course is carried parallel to them, must inevitably act as a [?] for irrigation; this plain fact is appreciated by every villager who resides in the [?] of these rivers, and who although he [may ?] not have the means, in the possession of land, of [twining ?] it to account in irrigation, yet adopts the principle in [designing ?] cuts to turn his [corn ?] mills, or in [establishing ?] dams for the application of his fishing apparatus. On a larger scale this same fact has been taken advantage of by our [Puthan ?] and [moghul mede ?] [?] not only on the [sumna ?], but on the rivers in [Rohilkund ?] and in the Punjab; on the [sumna ?] especially the canals on the east and

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