The Ganges Canal; [manuscript].

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and on the west of that river, which within the last thirty years have been restored by the British Government, are vestiges of its early appreciation; [?] canal from the Ravi in the Punjab is of the same character; while [Rohilkund ?] and the countries bordering on the [?], throughout their length and breadth offer a variety of specimens of canals of more humble pretensions, but moving in every case that the method of obtaining irrigation was perfectly understood. With so many examples before us, no great exertion of intellect was required to arrive at the conclusion that the system might be generalized with a map before us, it was fair to infer that if canals had been so easily supplied from the [sumna ?], [? ? ?], similar canals might under similar circumstances be taken from the [?], from the Chenab, from the Ravi, from the [Sutley ?], from the Ganges, from the [Ramgunga ?], or from any other of the rivers that after leaving the mountains pass over a country, possessing in its contour every qualification for enabling the engineer to make the best possible use of the water that could be distributed over it. It was under these well known characteristics of surface, and with the example of the [sumna ?] canals before us, that the idea of taking a line from the Ganges

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Ganges originated. There were natural difficulties existing on both sides of this river at and immediately below the point where it leaves the mountains, that had notoriously injured its reputation as a source of supply for a canal; but so little was known of the detail of these difficulties, or of the extent to which the surface of the country was affected by them that in consequence of the similarity of connection between the [Bodhi ?] Ganges & [Bodhi sumna ?] of the main river of which they were [respectively ?] ancient branches; a hope was [?] that the [former ?] [ ? ? ] a site for the head works of the Ganges canal equally appropriate & effective with that supplied by the latter for the head works of the eastern [sumna ?] canal. It was from a point near the village of [Badshahproor ?] marked A in Diagram I, that the first line of levels was taken; the extraordinary elevation of the country at D, from whence the high land of the Doab commences, was then not known by those interested in irrigation. At the point where the line of levels from the boundary of the high land A crossed the rise of country was equal to 83.225 feet; the possibility [they're ?] of using the [Boodhi?] [Gunga ?], as a head for a canal was totally out of the question, but the same course of reasoning which had led to the adoption of the [Boodhi Gunga ?] in the

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the first instance, led further to that of a point situated on the main river at higher levels, as it was clear that by proceeding higher, and leaving cost out of [ ? ? ], the certainty of discovering a line upon which a canal might be traced was [?] [inevitable ?]. Before entering upon the narrative of the rise and progress of the works on the Ganges canal, a few words on former projects for the irrigation of the Districts which are to be placed under its influence may be appropriate; these so far as I am aware are only [two ?] in number ; the first, or [Muhummud ?] [Aboo ?] Khan's canal which appertains to a period prior to the accession of the British - the second, a project of Captain Debude's of the Bengal Engineers, submitted to Government in 1827. The canal of Muhummud Aboo Khan, the remains of which still exist in the neighborhood, and to the north north west of Meerut, consisted of a cut made from the west [kalli nuddi ?] near the village of Rampoor, to the head of a small tributary of the east [kalli nuddi ?], called the [khodara nulla ?], which rises near the village of [Deorala ?], the length of this cut did not exceed 12 1/2 miles, and its dimensions judging from the existing [?] could not have exceeded 15 feet in width; the water after reaching [Deorala ?] must have passed down the [Khadara Nulla ?] to the town of Meerut in

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6. in the neighborhood of which there are many groves and gardens and it is supposed that it was for the purpose of supplying water to these groves and gardens that the canal was originally projected; there is no tradition [?] of its existence as a running stream, although there is no reason to doubt that for a season at least it was [?] the canal was evidently one of those which from the circumstances affecting it supply and from the total absence of all masonry works, could not have been classed [?] the head of permanent works for Irigation. The west [?] [?] at the village of Rampour, although a perennial stream, is one of those lines of draingage which during the periodical rains is subject to very great floods; the River meanders through a valley of considerable extent, and during the dry months is 30feet below the level of the county, or holow that land over which [?] above Khanis canal was carried; the [?] was merely excavated to a few feet in depth; and water was supplied from a lake formed by throwing an embankment was the {?} of the west [?] [?]. The flooding of the valey by this venterous or damming upshots waters, must have done extroadinary damage its the properties with its limits the

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The amount of money and labor expanded on an embankment of proportions sufficient to gain the engineers object must have been very great; and the necessity for [?] an annual reconstruction of a work which was inevitably destroyed during the rain floods, and the certainty that water could only have reached the mouth of the canal during the dry months of the year, are facts which reasonably lead us to conclude that no great benefit was ever derived by the cultivators on the high lands in its vicinity. Muhummed Aboo appears to have made two attempts at obtaining water from the west Kalli Nuddi [?]: that at Ranpoor [?] described, and a lower one from the village of [Farrudpoor ?]: traces of [?] there [?] which joined at a point near [Jowalagurk ?] were distinctly [?] at the date of our operations. The line of the present Ganges canal channel crosses the remains of Aboo's canal (as it is now called) at an angle of 50 degrees near the village of [Jowalagurh ?] and by a singular [?] of purpose, that portion of it which approaches the canal from the west Kalli Nuddi at [Farrudpoor ?] is now converted into an escape, for throwing the waste water from the canal into the valley of the river. The plan above described as carried into effect by Aboo Khan is an illustration of canal designing which is by no means uncommon in this part of India: it possibly originated partly in the inability of the owners of the site upon which the [?] was erected, to take possession of land at a higher level of the rivers course, and partly from the apparent magnificance of a design which in converting any land into

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