The Ganges Canal; [manuscript].

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the community; views of irrigation on a more extended scale were freely advanced. [Rohilkund ?] which had from time immemorial been the field of any extensive irrigation, disarranged it is true by the anarchy that had prevailed previously to its settlement as a regulation province, but still containing within itself all the vestiges of its ancient canals, water courses and dams; was one of the first localities that came under the notice of Government: a series of [?] illustrative of this irrigation was submitted to Colonel Colvin, the superintendent of canals at that time, and subsequent enquiries led to the deputation of that officer to report upon certain projects for the immediate restoration of some of the old lines. Colonel Colvins report and the favorable opinion he expressed, of the extraordinary capabilities of the District, led to the appointment of an engineer officer to [superintend ?] the execution of a line of canal near the town of Nugeena; the completion of this work, and afterwards the appointment of Captain William Jones of the Bengal engineers to carry out the intentions of Government in extending the means of irrigation throughout the Province, led to the establishment of a permanent system under an officer [entitled ?] "Super"-intendent of canals and embankments " in

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"in Rohilkund" Captain Jones who held this appointment up to the year 1854 is the author of a variety of reports on the subject of irrigation in the province. In 1836, Colonel Colvins left India, having devoted a long period of his life to the canals in these provinces, and having left a spirit of emulation amongst his successors, the result of which has been favorable in no small degree to the advancement of those objects to which so much of his time had been devoted. In 1837, the [Derpa Doon ?] or valley between the [Sumna ?] and ganges, lying north of the [Saharumpoor ?] District from which it is separated by a low line of mountains called the Sewaliks, became the field of enquiry for irrigation purposes; the valley itself was intersected by running rivers and the Himalayas which [bounded ?] its northern front supplied from numerous perennial streams of greater or less [?] ample means for providing irrigation to the high lands forming the northern part of the valley. The examination of a field thus prolific in its means for irrigation, has led to the execution of numerous works; the Beejapoor, Rajpoor, and Kutta [Puttur ?] canals have been already executed; two other lines, which come under the designation of the [Kalunga ?] and [Sunsadharra ?] canals

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canals have been delayed in execution merely from want of executive superintendence: and numerous unexamined streams now lost in the ravines and forests which skirt the base of the Himalayas, are in all probability as capable of being turned to useful account as those which have been already worked upon. About the same period that the Doon irrigation was brought to the notice of the Government, Major Baker, the Superintendent of the Delhi canals was occupying his time, in many useful enquiries as to the means for supplying irrigation to the country lying between the sumna and the Sutley rivers; the results of these enquiries as embodied in a series of reports and papers were published by the Government of the north western provinces

The [Cugger ?] which leaves the hills at the eastern extremity of the Pinjore valley, was the only line of perennial river that prior to the period of Major Baker's enquiries had been taken up as a supply for irrigation; its being brought under the consideration of Government at all was, I believe, due to certain disrupted rights of water claimed by an independent Sikh chief (the Puttialla Raja) through whose territories a portion of its course runs

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runs; engineer officers had been [deputed ?] to establish works for regulating and equalizing the available supply : the means of irrigation offered by the [Cugger ?] were however comparatively small, and were confined entirely to the establishment of earthen dams at [?] intervals for the formation of reservoirs from whence the irrigations drew their water: the value of the [Cugger ?] as an irrigating stream was in fact confined to a narrow tract on each edge of the river. Major Baker was accordingly led on to the consideration of some more comprehensive scheme, embracing not only certainty of the supply but extension of the area to be irrigated so as to [achieve ?] the distant lands to the south and west of [?poor], together with those on the right bank or to the north of the Delhi canal, the levels of which were too high to admit of them [?] water from that [?]. The Sutley river on its approach to the plains at [?] takes a considerable turn to the west regaining its eastern direction by a sharp [?] bend; the course of the river at this point forming a long loop, the neck of which is not more than 7 miles in width. It was to a point above this loop, or giving evident advantages of slope

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erase entry [written in pencil under page number]

that Major Baker's attention was first directed as promising an appropriate site in the head of a canal; to this idea however the mountain [?] which leads to the deviation of the river from its direct course offered an unsurmountable barrier; the highest accessible point [?] was selected by Major Baker for the commencement of a line which was to pass centrically through the country bounded by the Sutley and the Sumna. The results of the survey showed the feasability of a project which would provide irrigation to an immediate extent of country the more western parts of which are at present totally unirrigatible. Even from wells and at the same time would supply water for domestic uses in regions now reduced to deserts from the total want of it.

Major Baker having satisfied himself of the fact that the Sutley might be made use of for irrigation, and having carefully examined the country lying between [Loodiana ?] and [Kurnal ?]; submitted his views to the Government. At this time a great portion of the land over which the projected canal would have taken its course was in the hands of independent sikh chiefs and others who recognized no further control by the British Govern -ment than that offered by treaty for their protection; no regular plans and estimates were therefore submitted to the Government, and the whole question, interesting as it was at the time, was allowed to drop. Laying aside the reasons for adopting this course which I have no doubt were in every way sufficient, but at the same time, looking to the extraordinary benefits that the count ry would have derived from the introduction of water, and the con-se-[quent]

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