The Ganges Canal; [manuscript].

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into a lake realized in the eyes of the multitude the acts of the [Jinns ?] or [Genii ?] of Eastern Fable. Over the [Kinsunni ?] or Kristna river which runs [eastward ?] and parallel to the west Kalli Nuddi, and closely by the towns of [Jullalabad ?] and [Thanmabhoun ?], a similar work appears to have been executed during the [?] period of Gholam [Radin's ?] Government, the note [Bund ?] thrown over the river at this point was of moderate extent in comparison with that at Rampoor, but its purposes were the same. [Bunds ?] of this sort were by no means uncommon in the earlier history of these districts, and at the present day every river in the tract of country between the [Sumna ?] and Ganges, is interrupted in the upper parts of its course by embankments more or less extensive for the purpose of collecting a supply of water for irrigation. In the Delhi and adjoining districts as well as in the districts further west, irrigation from [reservoirs ?] of the above description is extensively used. Captain Debude's project to which I have referred as the second instance recorded of an attempt to supply the means of irrigation to the lands on the right of the Ganges, was in fact a mere enlargement of the scheme originated by Mahummed Aboo Khan, in so far that the plan of damming up the west Kalli Nuddi

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[?] and raising of water until it was able to afford a supply to a channel excavated on high levels, was restored to; [?] [?] Deluge in fact adopted the site of Mahummud aboo Khan's Embarkment on the West Kalli Nuddi as the position of the head of his canal, and although the works for irrigation which were projected by him were calculated to be of more extended benefit, they were as all our canal undertakings had been up to that period, a mere attempt to restore, and in restoring to improve upon, the acts of our predecessors. I have before explained that Muhammed Aboo Khan's Canal was a mere cut for the approved [?] purposes of giving water to the town of Meerut and hte Graceens [?] in its nieghborhood; Captain Debride's idea was to extend the benefits of the introduction of water on the high levels, by carrying a Canal to the South through the Meerut, Bolunashuhui, and the Northern portion of the Abigurhu [?] Districts: the possibility of obtaining a supply for this purpose from the Gauges River under the difficulties that were supposed to exist, did not enter into his calculations, and the whole bent of his mind was directed to devising the best and most economical method of turning to profitable amount the available supply funded by the perennial streams connected with the west Kalli Nuddi and

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and its [?].

The [Kindun ?] river which in character is similar in every respect to the west Kalli Nuddi, runs parallel to, and joins the latter river on its right bank at a point about 10 miles below the village of Rampoor, on the site of Muhummed Aboo Khan's embankment. The supply of water in the [Kindun ?] river is continuous during the year, and as is the case with the west Kalli Nuddi, increases during the rainy months to a new considerable volume. It was Captain Debude's intention to throw embankments with masonry sluices over both these rivers; to create by such means two gigantic reservoirs connected by an excavated cut, and by these works to raise the level of the water to a sufficient height, to enable him to pass it off at a canal head which was situated at Rampoor. It would be out of place here to enter into a detail of a project which, although it was never carried out, may be considered as the [?] of future operations for the economical application of waters now allowed to run to waste; it will be sufficient to state that Captain Debude's scheme involved the construction of two very extensive masonry dams with their embankments over the rivers above described, the [sill ?] of that on the [Kindun ?] being 15 feet, and that

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that on the west Kalli Nuddi, 25 feet above the beds of their respective rivers; it involved, moreover, a sacrifice of a considerable tract of any valuable land which would have been inundated on the formation of the reservoirs. There was reason however to doubt whether during the rainy months, or for that period when irrigation is especially required for sugar cane and rice, the regularity of supply could have been insured, & whether, even during the dry months, the reservoirs, being subject to [? - ?] of volume from the effects of evaporation and absorption could keep up a supply sufficient for the purposes of irrigation; and in all probability [?] on these points led to the sacrifice of the project. The plans and papers were submitted in great detail to [?] William [Bentinck ?] (1831) who was the Governor General, with an estimate amounting to about three [lakhs ?] of rupees. The difficulty as well as danger of interferring with the courses of rivers liable as the [Kindun ?] and west Kalli Nuddi are to floods of the most violent description during the rainy months, were by no means unappreciated by Captain Debude, but the times during which he carried on his labors, were not those when the advantages of irrigation

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irrigation were understood and recognized as they were a few years afterwards; Captain Debude's means were limited, not only by the instructions under which he acted but by the certainty that estimates to a large amount would not be [?] by the Government with the slightest satisfaction; whatever, therefore, may have been captain Debude's views as to the feasibility of obtaining a supply of water from the Ganges on the principles that had already been adopted on the [Sumna ?] river, no reference is made to them in any of the [?] that have come under my cognizance, and his ultimate removal to a superior appointment in Calcutta, which took him entirely from the [?] of his early engineering enquiries in the North West Provinces, gave a new direction to his thoughts, and introduced him to new fields wherein his talents were as profitably executed as they had been elsewhere. As time advanced, and the results of the [Sumna ?] canals had moved to the Government that the money which had been laid out on these works had been most profitably expended, that independently of paying off their own expenses annually, they were both directly and indirectly increasing the land revenue, improving the resources of the country, and greatly benefitting the

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