Scirpus Torreyii Olney, p. 156
29. Scirpus Torreyii Olney.
Syn. S. mucronatus Ph. & Tor. (not of Linn.)
Culm 3-angled, the sides concave, & nearly equal, leafy at the base; spikes 1 to 4 sessile, ovate-oblong; acute, distinct, much shorter than the slender erect involucral leaf; scales ovate, smooth, entire, mucronate; leaves 2 or 3 more than hald the length of the culm; styles 3 cleft; bristles longer than the achenium; anthers without appendages; achenium unequally triangular, very smooth, long-pointed. Culms about two feet high. Flowers in July.
Margin of ponds. Michigan. Extends eastward to N. England.
Scirpus Lacustris Linnaeus, p. 157
30 Scirpus lacustris, Linnaeus.
Syn. S. validus, Vahl. S. acutus Muhl. Bull-rush.
Culm large, cylindrical, tapering to a point, leaflets; spikes ovate-oblong, numerous in a crowded unbel-like panicle turned to one side; scales ovate, mucronate; achenium obovate, mucronate, plano-convex. Culms 3 to 8 feet high, Flowers in July.
Grows very abundantly in shallow water along the margin of rivers and lakes, throughout Wisconsin; also in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan. Extends east to the N England states, and south to Florida. A native also of Europe.
Plate I fig-9 a-the spike; b-a flower; c the scale; d stamen; e achenium; f bristle.
The bull-rush is used for making rush bottoms to chains, but is inferior for this purpose to the S. pungens. The Indians use it extensively for mats to cover their wigwams, and for other purposes. The root is astringent and [diuretic?], and was once used as medicine, but not now. The plant belonging to the family of Gramineae and Cyperaceae, do not appear to possess any very active or useful medicinal qualities.
Scirpus Debilis Pursh, p. 158
31 Scirpus debilis, Pursh.
Culms slender, striate, with naked sheaths and sometimes one leaf at the base; spikes 3 to 8 ovoid, in a sessile clustre; involucre one leaved extending above the spikes like a prolonged culin; scales broadly ovate, obtuse mucronate, greenish yellow; styles 2 or 3 cleft; achenium obovate, plano-convex or lenticular, shining, minutely dotted, shorter than the 4 to 6 bristles: Culms 6 to 15 inches high. Flowers in [crossed out] July.
Banks of lakes and streams. Illinois, and Michigan. Extends south to Georgia.
[Variety from St. Louis-May be same in Ill?](2)
Scirpus Fluviatilis Gray, p. 159
 32 Scirpus fluviatilis Gray.
Syn. S. mauritimus, Torrey (not of Linn)
Leaves flat, broadly linear, tapering gradually to a point, the upper and those of the very long involucre very much exceeding the [culm] compound umbel; rays 5 to 9, elongated, recurved-spreading, bearing 1 to 5 ovate or oblong-cylindrical acute heads; achenium obovate, sharply and exactly triangular, conspicuously pointed, opaque, scarcely equalling the 6 rigid bristles; anthers elongated, with an awl-shaped, fringed appendix at the apex. Culms 3 or 4 feet high, very stout, sharply triangular. Flowers in July.
Wet marshes, about streams &c. At Milwaukee in Wisconsin; also in Illinois, Ohio and Michigan. Extends east to Western N. York.
The foliage of this species is eaten by cattle. It is said that the roots of the nearly allied D. maritimes have been ground in times of scarcity, and used instead of flour.
Plate I fig 10-a, the spike; b, a flower; c, anther; d achenium, e, section of the achenium. [f]
Scirpus Atrovirens Muhlenberg, p. 160
 33 Scirpus atrovirens Muhlenberg
Culms rigid, obtusely triangular, very leafy; spikes ovoid, clustered 15 to 20 together in dense heads; bristles 6, scarcely exceeding the obovoid, compressed, triangular achenium; scales awnless; style 3 cleft. Culms 2 to 6 feet high, triangular, leafy. Flowers in July.
Wet meadows, about springs, and swamps. Found throughout Wisconsin, also in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan.
Prof. Emmons has given the results of the examination of this plant cut near Albany in June, when just out of flower, from which it appears that it consists of watwe 40.88 percent Dry matter 59.12 The dried hay consisted of Organic matter 96.02 percent Ash 3.98
This Scirpus therefore, like the Eleocharis temus contains a much smaller quantity of water, and its hay yields about two & a half percent less ash than timothy (Phleum pratense).