Farfel Research Notebooks

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Farfel Notebook 01: Leaves 001-064

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The St. Gregory Hymnal + Catholic Choir Book - S.C. 783 M76 (Mass of the Slaessed Virgin Mary) Cum jubilo #12 In festis B. Mariae Virginis No IX Kyrie XII C, from the Vatican Graduale Kyrie eleison X3 Christe eleison X3 Gregorian Kyrie eleison X3 Gloria XI C. Melody Gloria in excelsis Deo. Et in Tera pax hominibus bonae volents tis Laudamus te. Bene dicimus te. Adoramuste. Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex Coaelestis, Deus Pater omipotens Domine Fili unigenite Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agorus Dei, Filius Patris. Qui Tollis Peccata mundi: miserera nobis. Qui tollis peccata mundi: suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui se des ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus sanctus. Tu solus Dominus. Tu solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe. Sum Sancto Spiritu, in gloria Dei Patris. Amen. Credo

An antiphonary consists of 3 sections: the gradual the responsorial + the antiphonaru proper. Later the gradual was made seperate. The antiphonary proper is in three parts: the "antiphonarium diurnale" with the canticles sung at the daytime offices throughout the year, the "antiphonarium Vesperale" with the parts of the breviary sung at Vespers, + the "antiphonarium nocturnale" with the canticles for the night time offices.

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Bodleian - Liturgical Manuscripts Z. 5948 M 609 The Western notation of the early Middle Ages consists of a system of accent - the stroke (/ virge) the dot (. punctum) + the comma (' apostrophus) all of which had melodic significance. Combinations of these signs into figures are called neams. Each neam, therefore represented more than one note + indicates the connection between them the variations in the voice, the general direction of the melodic movement but not the exact pitch.

Beneventan Script - South Italian Minuscle - Visigothic had no part in the formation of Beneventan script - it was not affected by the Cluniac reform -in its lond + slow development there seems to be no sudden inovations traceable to foreign influences - in turn, it must be said that the Beneventan left no mark on other scripts. -Complete fulfilment in the 11th C -decline + disintegration in the 13th C.

the main pause is indicated by 2 points + a comma (i) the form of the sign being typical of the 10th C MSS The the mere point or the point surrounded by an oblique hook (!) is used for ledder pauses [? ?] = tm

Psalm IX in the Roman Breviary is divided into 2 psalms in the King James Version. The numbers thus differ, up to Psalm CXLVII in the Protestant Bible, which is divided into 2 in the Roman versiton. THe last 3 psalms are thus similarly numbered in both versions.

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Book of Hours #43 ana=Ant. 15th C French #36

Versiale (Lands + Vespers) X Domina exaudi orationem meam O Lord hear my prayer Rx Et Clamor meus ad te veniat And I do my cry come unto thee Oremus Let us Pray Oratio Collect

#43 St. John, Apostly + Evangelist Ecclesian taum, Domme, #36 Of thy goodness, O Lord, benig nus illustra: ut enlighten they Church: that, berti Joannis Apostoli illumined by the teaching tui et Evangelistae illuminata of blessed John they Apostle doctrinis, ad dona perveniat and Evangelist, she may sempiterna. Per. attain to eternal gifts. Through

#43 Benedicamus Domino Let us bless the Lord Deo gratias #36 Thanks be to God Pater noster On Father

Monday in Whitsun Week - Collect Deus, qui Apostolis O God, who didst give this sanctum dedisti the Holy Ghost to thine Spiritum: concede plebi #36 Apostles, grant to thy people tune piae petitionis effectum; the fruit of their loving prayer; #43 ut quibus dedisti fidem, that where theou hast given lariaris et pacem. faith there also thon mayest Per Dominum ... in unitate bestow peace. Through our ejusdem. Lord ... in unity with the same Holy Ghost.

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Aug. 15 Famulorum tuorum qusesumus Forgive, O Lord, we Domine, delictis ignosce: ut #36 beseech thee, the sons of qui tibi placare de actibus thy servants; that we, who nostris non valemus Genitricis by our own deeds are unable #43 Filii tui Domini nostri to please thee, may be saved intercessione salvemur. by the mother of thy Son, our Qui tecum Lord who Liveth.

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France con sign (9) used internally. ÷ est (French MSS) (est). ȩ (12th C) i - dotted ? or only if double et sign - long honiz. stroke - characteristic of the Latin South (z) i.e. Spain ampersand & - (Canolingian) [?Tuionian?] sign v forked r - French cursive hands c for cum not common after 1220 n for non de, do, p. juncture which is common in developed gothic crossed [?Tuionian?] et sign 7 -- sometimes regarded as indicative of origin north of the Alps double looped S --> S erect s --> f developed Gothic --> tightly compressed letters becomes shaded 1 (1343) the [inserted] internal [end inserted] omedial 9 sign for con or cum is generally French miniscule [?forked?] r (r) - Typically French

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littera quadrata (textura) square Gothic. Both ends ie. the Lead + feast of the perpendiculars are finished off by lozenge shaped serifs, placed obliquely to the mam strokes A simpler form littera semi quadrata. The heads of the perpendicular strokes begin with a short + thick serif. The feat, however, end with a point (just as the bib leaves the writing material) or are rounded off by a trait curving to the right. littera rotunda round Gothic - absence of the Jozenge shaped serifs of square Gothic. Both heads + feet of the vertical strokes are rounded off by curves.

In Gutenberg's Time, paper was old in the East; in Europe it had been a familiar commodity for some 300 yrs. Printers ink, a mixture of lampblack + oil was known in its elements to the contemporary painter

#9 Breviary (Hall) Psalm 75(4) Confitebimur tibi Deus Psalm 97(6) Dominus regnavit exaltet terra Psalm 99(8) Dominus nagnavit irascantue populi Psalm 47 (6) Omnas gentes, plaudita manibus Psalm 61 (0) Exaudi Deus deprecationem meam intende., Psalm 64(3) Exandi Deus Orationem mam cum deprecor

In Festivatatibus #12 - In illo tempore: Dixit Jesus discipulis suis: Jesus said to his disciples - Gregory X Pope (1271 2 - 12960 tEDALDO vISCONTI Beatae Marise Virginis (Blessed Virgin) [Omelia beatie gregorii pape] - Ordinale Sarum ad Matutines Nov. Sancti Andree Apostoli reponoriirs hymn versicles prayer Lasons invitatories capitula (chapters) antiphons

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BX 2470 B 76 1974 West Valley The Monastic World - Christopher Brooke

Out of the early asccetic groups, scattered all over the Roman Empire devloped the movement known as "monastic". The first monks of the Egyption decent were hermits or anchorites. But from very early dayse there came to be communitus of monks living in monasteries (coenobia - common) The monastic ideal is commonly reckoned to owe its formation to St. Antony (c. 251 - 35c), + he was the first great anchorite; it is beyond a doubt that it was in the was in the descents of Egypt that monasticism was born in the early 4th C. 1 Athanasius the bishop + Theologian 2 Antony the hermit 3 Pechomius the coenobite created the tradition of orthodox monasticism the basic ideals of the desert fathers were preserved in John Cassian's Collations (c. 400) - settled in the south of Gaul Cappadocia - eastern Asia minor - St. Basil (d. 379) - Greek Orthodox monastic life St Augustine of Hippo (345-430) Africa - Confessions The 6th C saw the final separation of Greek east from Latin west 1 (with 500) - the Rule of the Master 2) (with 530) - Monte Cassino - 2nd + more famous Rules was written by Benedict of Nursia. Cassiordus - Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) "The Rule" was taken to England in the course of the 7th C to Fleny on the Loire

Irish monastic movement - Columbian who wenf from Bangor to found Luxeird in Gaul + Bobbio in Italy; his disciples spread Celtic monastic influence as far as St. Gallen. Columcille founder of Durow + Iona - St Aidan. Benedict of Aniare (d. 821) appointed by Louis the Pious, Charlemagne's successor - central figure in Western monachism - development of an ever increasing liturgy. Reidenare, Cluny (909-10), Gorze in Lorraine (c. 933) Glastonbury (940), Jumiegaz Public reading an essential part of monastic life.

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If we ask the question, when was the Benadictine Order formed, then the 1st simple strict answers is: never, or not yet. The history of Benedictine communities has been the story of a long struggle to preserve the independence which was tradionally regarded as an essential mark of Benedictine monachism. 900-1050 - monastic influence rose to its peak in the political + social life of Western Europe - between 1050+1150 the numerical strencth of the monastic world increased but the place of the monks in the life of the Church + the wold did not grow in proportion. - conflict - spostolic vs angelic life 11-12th C activity vs prayer 1) The Augustinian Canons 2) The Cistercians (1097) 3( The Knights - 1118 first house of Templars found in Jerusalem 4) Abbenses + prioresses 5) St. Norbert + St. Francis - the Premonstratensiens + the Friars (12th C) (13th C)

The Augsburg printer Hans Otmar was active in that city from 1502 to 1514 after 1st having been established in Rentlingen + Tubingen. His son Silvan Otmar operated a printing press in Augsburg from 1513 to 1539. Silvan took a decided interest in printing Reformation treatise: including many of Luther's writings THe language of the Book of COmmon Prayer influenced Englishe press for 4 centuries. It also affected attitudes + ways of thinking. The 1st official prayer book of the Episcapal Church printed in 1790 was based on it.

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In the Roman computalion in the month 3 days were used to count from: the 1st (Kalends), 5th (Nones) + 13 (Ides); in March, May, July, + Oct the Nones + Ides fell on th 7th + 15th of the months. The days were counted from the following Kalends, Nones, or Ides; e.g. Jan 10 was the 4th day before the Ides of Jan., or the 4th of the Ides of Jan., because the Romans counted inclusively; Jan 25 was teh 8th of the Kalends of Feb; Feb 3 was the 3rd of the Nones of Feb; + Feb 23 was the 7th of the Kalends of March. Now Feb 23 was always the 7th of the Kalends of March, in spite of intercalatione; hence a leap year, when a day was instead between Feb 23 + 24, there were 2 days conted as the 6th of the Kalends of March. The leap year is thus bissextile [Latin = twice six.)

- The calendar now most widely used in an evolution of the Roman calendar. In its most primitive form this apparently had 10 months March (31), April (29), May (31), June (29), Quintilis (31), Saxtilia (29) Sept. (29) Oct (31 Nov(29) Dec (29). To fill out the year a blank number of days or occasional intercalary months were used. Later Jan (29) + Feb (28) were added to the end of the year. - The lithurgical year consists of 2 cycles a) the feasts of Our Lord, the Sumdays + the major + minor ferias b) the feasts of the Virgin + the Saints. The 1st cycle is reckoned by the lunar year. It depends on the central feast of Easter which is not celebrated on a fixed day of the kalendar or solar year. In the liturgical books the whole cycle of these 'moveable' feasts is collected into the 'Proper of the Season' or 'Temporale'. The reckoning of the 2nd cycle is much simpler. Each feast is alebrated on a Fixed day. There are collected into the 'Proper of the Saints' or 'sanctorale'.

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(ca 995-1050) Guido of Arezzo - established a staff of 4 lines, 2 of which stood out in color, yellow or green being used for the do tone + ted for the fa tone. The 4 lines + 3 spaces were sufficient for the music of his time. Our modern 5 line stavewas fully in use for nearly all kinds of music by the end of the 15th C. The modern symbols for the notes themselves evolved from the medieval neumes. Bass clef - marked the line for the note F, + its shape was that of a stylized F. Treble clef - marked the line for the note G, + its shape was that of a stylized G. six tone or hexachord scale - CDE FGA Guido's original scheme - ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la - Ut quesnt laxis Resonare fibris Mira gestarum Mira gestarum Famuli Tuorum Solve polluti Labii reatum Sancte Joannes

Later the more sonnous do was substituted for the ut + with the full fledged development of the 7 note diatonic scale, si was added Taken from the S of Sancte + the old style J (written like an I) of Joannes. In some Western countries si had become ti.

The 5 line stave was a Spanish invention.

Clefs 4 line staff C C C [?] yellow C - F F ,C [?] black ...... G [?] [?] [?] Red F - 13th 15 17 Century black ......

Aquare or quadratic notation on 4 line red staves. This notation which developed out of the early neumes, had crystallized by the 12th or 13th C. + has since become the basis of our modern notation. The neumes had no rules for measuring time, as rythm was determined by the Latin prose of teh texts.

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The a in pure Gothic is made by the bottom loop in one conuter clockwise stroke completed by a clockwise stroke closing the opening

Gothic Script - Certain letter forms found in manuscripts during the Gothic period from 13-15C. -origin - round Carolingian minuscule of the late 8 + 9the C - it is rather to be looked upon thatn read - great diversity of hands - previous - all writing of books was done within monastic scriptions. - 3 branches 1) lithurgical (textus quadratus or textura

Gutenberg Bible - books of hours never found facor in Italy or Spain - rather used rotunda.

H.C. Schulz Z 239 G 72S 389 38 38f 2) Vernacular or bastarda "a" similar to our written or italic letter "s" + "f" are o fthe long variety 3) scholastic hands

flemish illumination - venter in 3 towns - Burges, Ghent + Antwerp (all present Belgium) - late in awakening - tis close was the close of the manuscript period - arose about about 1475 - continued to end quarter of the 16th C. fullest perfection under Simon Bening + his pupils (Hennessy Hours at Brussels) -objects as they were seen with his own eyes - a break with dmedieval traditions of conventional + purely decorative drawing. - landscape as the back ground of a miniature.

Flanders - the corresponing modern regions inclued the provinces of East + West Flanders in W. Belgium + the adjacent parts of N France + SW Netherlands

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