Farfel Research Notebooks

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Farfel Notebook 01: Leaves 001-064

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51 S.F. Book Fair Charles W. Traylen Sept. '76 $4.30 4.00

William Turner (b. 1510-5 d. 1568) Plesch Cat #775 Herball fol. S.T.C. 24367 Nissen 2613 2 leaves 1568 Arnold Birckman - Collen, [heirs of] Copy HEHL (#61542-3) Of Betonne (Betony) 10 5/8 x 6 7/8 inches

W. Turner - the greatest name among British herbalists of the Renaissance period, Doctor of Medicine + Dean of Wells, the "Father of British Botany." During Mary's reign he was a fugitive, however, when Elizabeth (1558-1603) ascended the throne, the position was reversed + Turner came back to Wells. Spent much of his leisure time in the careful study of plants which he sought for in htier native habitat + described with an accuracy hitherto unknown in England. Earliest botanical work was the 'Libellue de re herbaria novus' [inserted] Londini apud Joannem Byddellum [end inserted] (1538) In 1548 this was followed by [inserted] John Day and William Setes. London.[end inserted] 'The names of herbes in Creke, Latin, Englishe, Duche + Frenchs myth the commune names that Herbaries + Apotecaries use.' Chef - d'oeuvre was his 'Herball' published in 3 instalments, the 1st (#24865) in London in 1551, the 1st + 2nd together at Cologne in 1562, during his exile in the reign of Mary, + the third part, together with the preceding in 1568 (after his death) The figures illustrating the herbal (1st part) are, for the most part, the same as those in the octavo edition of Fuchs' work, published in 1545. Turner's herbals is arranged alphabetically, + does not show evidence of any interest in the relationships of the plants.

173 woodcuts W. Turner 1551 A new Herball. Steven Mierdman London Printer - S. Myerdman 1550-52 266 woodcuts 1562 The seconde parte of Virilliam Turners herball. Arnold Birckman. Collen. (Koln) 66 woodcuts *1568 The first + seconde partes of the Herbal of W. Turner ... with the Third parte, lately gathered ... Arnold Birckman. Collen.

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(1475-1640) S.T.C Z 2002 p 77 Ref. Rm The first + seconde partes of the herbal lately oversene, with the third parte: also a book of the bathe of Baeth 4 pts. fol. Colle, [heirs of] A. Birckman.

- This is the most original + critical of the English herbals. It is obvious that he based much of his herbal an original observation. Turner was in exile during the reign of (1553-58) - Mary, which explains why the 2 + 3 rd parts were printed at Cologne. The dedication of an assembled edition was dated at Wells, June 24, 1564, but it was printed at Cologne by A. Birckman for the reason Pulteney curmised, that Birckman was then owner of the wood blocks. These were the blocks of the octavo Fuchs of which Turner used over 400. He added 40 others. It was Turner who first gave names to many English plants. His herbal includes scientific records of 238 native British plants. His writings were burned + he suffered a turn of imprisonment during the reign of Henry VIII (1509-47) Under Edward VI (1547-53) he became Dean of Wells.

Turner was the 1st in Britian to lights his tounchet the flame of the pioneer herbalists on the continent, and, breaking away from authority + superstitian, to describe British plants from his own observation + experience. He was a religious exile for part of his life + retained a connection with foreign printers, which explains the imprint of the herbal. (he returned at Elizabeth's accession in 1559 + died in London in 1568.)

Nissen - The New Herbal of W. Turner includes the 2st scientific record of no less than 238 indegenous plants of Gt. Britian

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52 S.F. Book Fair Charles W. Treylen Sept '76 $4.30 4.00

Rambertus Dodonaeus (Rembert Dodoens) - 1517-1585 A Nieuse Herball fol. S.T.C. 6984 Nissen 516 2 leaves 1578 H. Loe, Antwerpe (solde by) for G. Derves. 11 7/8 x 7 1/2 inches Hunt 132 (Antwerp, H. van der Loe, to be solde at London by Gerard Dewes Henry 110

Dodens, R. 1) Creuydeboeck. (Colophon:) Ghedruckt (Belgian) Tantwerpen by Jan vander Loe ... 1554 2) Histoire des plantes, .... Nouvellement traduite ... en Francois par Charles de l'Escluse. Jean Loe. An (Antwerp) ers. 1557 Copy HEHL (#60102) - * 3) A Nievve Herball, or Histories of Plantes ... no we first translated out of French into English, by Henry Lyte Esquyer. At London by me Gerard Deves ... dwelling in paw les Churchyarde at the signe of the Swanna 870 text woodcuts

German fathers of Botany See #170 1) Otto Brunfels (1464-1534) See #196 2) Hironymus Bock or Tragus (1498-1554) See #130 3) Leonhard Fuchs (1501-1566) - 'De historia stirpium' from the press of Isingrin of Basle.

- for Sale (1976) $2430.00

Henry Lyte [inserted] the first of a long line of British amateur botanists. [end inserted] (1529?-1607) translated the herbal (Cruij de bocck, 1534) of Dodoens into English from the French version of Clusius (1557) The first English ed. was printed in Antwerp for the London book seller Gerard Dewes. It was illustrated with the half sized wood blocks of Fuchs which had been acquired by the publisher, Van der Loe, presumably from Annoullet of Lyons. About 30 blocks were original with Dodoens. Lyte was a meticulous translator. He inserted English naem with care, cited his predecessors (Turner + Lobel, Adversaria) but added nothing to make the work distinctively English. Lyre's Dodoens was very important in the history of the diffusion of knowledge

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because it introduced the best contemporary herbal into English use.

first english edition + the standard work on herbs in England during th elatter part of the 16th C. Shakespere certainly used it, + Spenser probably did.

1578 Plesch cat #214 - 1st English ed. translated from the French ed (Antwerp J. van de Loe, 1559) + not from the original flemish

B. Henacy - The figures of plants illustrating the English translation are the same as those used for the Flemish ed. + the French version of the Cruydeboeck, but the woodblocks now show signs of wear. A number of th efigures are new + these were probably made from drawings be Piere van der Borcht.

HEHL (#60102) p. 393 the Historie of Plantes Chap. liij Of blacke Withi winde / or Bindeweede kk 5 (of 6) p. 394 The third Book of Chap liiij Of Soldanella or Sea Cawle before Chap lij of smothe Bindweede / or Withi winde after Chapt lv of Rough Bindeweede Third Booke page 312 chap. 1 452 chap xciiij Total of 6 books - 779 pages plus index

p. 417 + 418 Ranuneulus The third Booke of

pages [XXIV], 779, [24], [1].

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53 S.F. Book Fair Charles W. Traylen Sept. '76 $4.00

John Gerard (1545- Feb. 1612) The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes .... Heurey 154 1597 Imprinted at London by John Norton. Nissen- 698 S.T.C. 11750 (E. Bolli font f. B. a. J. Norton) 13 x 8 5/8 inches Hunt 175 The 'Herball' in a massive volume, in clear roman 1636 See #275 #390 type, contrasting markedly with the black letter used in the works of Turner + Lyte, + giving the book a much more modern appearance. It contains about 1800 woodcuts, nearly all from blocks used by (Theodorus, Jacobus) Tabernaemontanus in his 'eicones' of 1590, which Norton obtained from Frankfort; less than 1% are original. There is an illustration representing the Virginian Potato, which appears to be new, + is perhaps the 1st figure of this plant ever published.

Sold 1975 - $625

Between 1530 + 1630 the number of sets of wood engravings which were pre - eminent wa strictly limited. There were only 5 sets of woodcuts of plants of really first - rate importance - Brunfels, Fuchs, Mattioli, Plantin, + Gesner + Camerarius.

- most of the 1800 woodcuts used were taken from earlier Herbals.

John Parkinson (1567-1650) - apothecary to James I + botanist to Charles I. the illustrations to the Theatrum Botanicum are chiefly copied from those of Gerard.

Gerard's herball ed. Marcus Woodward

[inserted] Many copies fo this herbal were treasured in English homes for well over 200 yrs. - as a guide for fold medicine [end inserted] The "virtues" of the plants made this the "Home Book of Medicine" for every possible ailment.

John Norton - alderman, Printer to Queen Elizabeth in Latin + Greek, was also the first to establish a press at the college of Eton.

Gerard - a Barber - Sungeon - employed his energies Chiefly upon horticulture.

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The basis of this 1st ed. of Gerards herbal was the 2nd herbal of Dodens, published by Plantin of Antwerp in 1583 under the title Stirpium historiae pemptades sex siva libri XXX. This had been translated into English by a Dr Priest for th e publisher John Norton.

(Another edition) The Herbal or Generall Historie of Plantes .... Very much enlarged + amended by Thomas Johnson citizen + apothecarye of London. London, Printed by Adam Islip, Joice Norton + Richard Witakers. 1633.

Gerard included in his herbal medicinal, culinary + economic plants as well as native English + exotic plants which did not fall into any of these categories.

Herbs almost monopolized the materia medica of our forefathers + Herbals occupied a position in th ehome malogous with the modern "doctor book."

Henrey - Printed in English in clear roman type by Edmund Bellifant, another member of the Eliot's court printing house for the London bookseller J. Norton * The title page is one of the most attractive tha tappeared in the 16th C. There are only 19 recorded English engraved title pages published during the century. (i.e 16th)

The illustrations of plants in Gerard's work are woodcuts. The majority were printed from woodblocks obtained by Norton from Frankfurt, that had been used in 1590 for the Eiconen plantarum of Tabernaemontanus Apart from the Frankfurt figures, a number of other illustration were used, including some from de l'Obel + about 16 which were original. In his herball he described + illustrated several hundred of our native flowering plants, including about 182 which were additional to those recorded in earlier works (Turner + M. de l'Obel).

* Designed + engraved by William Rogers one of the earliest English exponents of copper plate engraving.

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54 S.F. Book Fair Charles W. Traylen Sept. '76 $5.00

Eusebius Caesaiunsis (Bp. of Caesarea ca. 260-340) "Chronological Tables" - Chronicon (translated by: Hieronymus) [Milan:] Latin Phillippus de Lavagnia annotated [about 1474-76[inserted] undated [end inserted]] 40 folio 35 [inserted] 3540 or = 1600 BC [end inserted]

Goff E 116 BMC VI p703 GW 9432 Cop HEHL, Yale Univ. Lib. Hain 6716 with the continuations of Prosper + Matthseus Palmerius Florentinus (1st edition) 209 leaves, the last blank. 3a: 35 lines, 189x109mm Type 108R. Capital spaces as far as 20a (15 point)

19b, the Chronicon arranged in the form of synoptical tables.

Editio Princeps Eusebius of Caesarea - Bishop of Caesarea [inserted] Greek historian [end inserted] in Palestine (314-40) apologist, Biblical exegets + the earliest Church historian The Chronicle - an epitome of world history* down to 303. -based partly on the work of Julius Africanus of Jerusalem, is extant only in Armenian + in Jerome's Latin adaptation. - Eusebius prefaced to the actual chronological tables accounts of various nations, in which he made cross references to events in Jewish history. Chronological works of this kind had long been used by Christians to demonstrate the antiquity fo Jewish achievements on which Christianity was based.

-adopted the name of his teacher Pamphilus priest of Ceseree (a martyr) - commonly designed by this name - Eusebius Pamphili.

- Historia Ecclesiastica De evangelica Proparatione Chronicon

* exhibiting in parallel colums the royal successions in different nations

1391 = 1590 (anni mundi) - begins - 3184 1431 = 6630 repromissionis (counter - promise) 1462 = 6660 (Anni Saluti)

this edition ends at 1449.

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Year of Creation or Anno Mundin 378 BC by the Western Church 1980 - 5740-1 A.M.

p 54 A Distand Minor B.W. Tuchman "Time, calender + history were reckoned by the Christian scheme. Creation of the world was dated 4,484 years before the founding of Rome, + modern history from the birth of Christ. Historical events thereafter were chronicled by papal reigns beginning with St. Peter's were recorded in relation to religious holidays + saints' days."

The Greek chronicle of Eusebius (Chronicon Eusebii Caesariensis) was translated + extended by Jerome, creator of the Vulgate bible; continued by Prospertiro of Aquitane to 455. Most of the Medieval world chronicles are based on Jerome's version.

The Chronicle of Jerome is a translation + supplements of the Chronological Canons of Eusebius, written in 379-80. Eusebius had set forth the chronological systems of teh Chaldacans, Assyrians, Hebrews, Egyptians, Greeks + Romans, + had down up synchronous tables in which historical events, especially those pertaining to sacred history, were entered with reference to the years of (1) Abraham (2016 B.C.), the Olympiads, the years of Rome + the Egyptian dynasties. The 1st part of Eusebius' work Gerome made translated; in the 2nd part he added many references to Roman history + literature, on the basis of Suetonius + others, + carried the account down from the 20th year of Constantine (325) where Eusubius stopped, to the death of Valens in AD 378.

2015 Abraham = Birth of Christ 25th yr of reign of Augustus 184th Olympiad 2 B.C."

1 Abraham = 2016 BC with who for Eusebius all reliable chronology began

Siconiorum Argiuorum Aegyptiorum ani mudi Assyriorum Hebraeorum

Ecclesiastical History The 10 books certain short biographies of such important early church figures as Polycarp, Clement of Alexandria Irenaeus, Dionysis + Origen, as well as many lesser + otherwise unknown bishops, Martyrs + apologists

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55 S.F. Book Fair Charles W. Traylen Sept. '76 $5.00

Reuchlin, Johannes (1455 4 - d. 1522) of Pforzheim Vocabularius breviloqurus, + C. 1478, Basel: [Johann Amerbach] (1478+1513) f0 (chancery) 1st ed. Goff R-155 BMC III p. 745 C. 6285 Latin Cop HEHL, New York PL (rare book div) g1 330 leaves, the last blank. 2 columns, except on i5 5a: 54 lines, 229x133mm Types 185, first lines + headings in the Vocabularius; gothic - 85 text; 95a Greek, words on 2a Capital spaces, with guide letters. 1st edition.

J. Amerbach - 1st book signed by this printer is the collection of tracts by V. of Besuvais dated 13 Dec 1481. He appears to have learnt his craft in Venice. Amerbach was at various times in partnership with Jacob von Pforzheim, Johan Petri, + Johann Froben; he had close business relations with Koberger who acted as his publisher, + with Rusch at Strassburg, to whom he appears to have lent type. Amerbach continued to print into the 16th C. + died on Christmas Day, 1513. In the middle of the 15th C Basel was a town with about 15,000 inhabitants.

Reuchlin - was at one time connector for the press of Amerbach. [inserted] Reuchlin was attacked by the coverted Jew Pfofferkorn who wanted all Hebrew books burnt. For opposing this Reuchlin was accused of heresy by the Dominicans of Cologne. He defended himself by publishing in 1534 a series of letters in his support from numerous famous scholars (Clarorum virorum epistolae) [end inserted] - was one of the leaders of German humanism + he is especially remarkable for introducing the study of Hebrew + Greek into Western Europe. He was the 1st scholar to introduce Hebrew into the curiculum of the university. He became professor at Ingolstacht + Tusoingen + among his pupils were Melanchthon, Oecolampadius + many other famous humanists.

- Pico's (the prince of Mirandola) most celebrated pupil + the greatest Christian Hebreist of his generation was J. Reuchlin. - published the first Christian - Hebrew grammar in 1506. - J. Reuchlin - one of the greatest scholars of the 15th C. Reuchlin was a jurist, classicist + herbraist. On the eve of the Reformation attacks on his tolerant humanism led to a satirical reply, his famous Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum.

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S. F. Bookfair Charles W. Trayler Sept. '76 $5.00

56 A.

Jacobus de Voragina (Varagine) (c. 1338-1298) Legenda aurea (1481-1502) Strausburg: Printer of the 1483 Jordanus de Quedlunberg ?(George Huener) 1483. f^o Polain 2196 Latin Goff J-107 Pr 586 Copinger, WA. 6430 Pell (V) 28 Cop HEHL, Yale IGI 5017 Sta. John and Paul -June 26 B. Royale Madsen 2183 LXXXII

46 lines, 264 leaves 209x137mm 461 lines, 264 leaves 210x139mm See #338

also J-117 1) 1486 Dec. 19 All similar J-122 2) 1489 BMC Io138 25, 23 Feb. Proctor 618 Proctor 630 BMC J-133 3) 1496 circa 12 May I-146 J-110 4) 1485 May 4 IGI5023 f^o J124 5) 1490 Aug. 16 Proctor 622 6) Dec. 17, 1483 Proctor 600 7) Aug. 9, 1492 Proctor 624

C. 6444 Pr 608 BMC I.135 264 leaves. 2 columns, c printed headliens 49 lines, 215x140mm Types 160, title, headlines, and C.; 91^a text; 91^b smaller headings spaces left for capitals, most c [illegible] letters.

1st edition in any language (German) April 27, 1472 See #105 1st Augsburg illustrated book Guenthen Zainer

J. de Voragine - Bishop of Genoa - one of the most noted Dominican writers of the 13th C

Although not actually a Bible, the Golden Legend contains a fairly literal translation of most of the Pentatanch and large part of the Gospels. Thus the Caxton edition was the earliest work to print any extensive part of an English Bible. (c. 1483-7)

Haebler - Husner painted lot from 1473til 1479, then again from 1493 till the end of the century. (see last page ->) 1483 Proctor 586 - Types 1 large type of a very peculiar form 47 lines, 215x137mm 2 large text type. 2 col 3 small text type. (31165) HEHL subnicated in red only. I --> CCXV my leaf --> end fust 1/2 of the book (under heading) (qi) of 6 I XXII 72 to cl XXII --> De festivitatibus que occuriet infana temp^9 pegninatis LXXX-De Sancta iohamne baptista 6/24 D LXXXI-De Sanctis gerussio et prothasio. 6/19 LXXXiii-De Sancto Leonne papa. 7/3

De sancto Othmaro cl xxxiij

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