Farfel Notebook 08: Leaves 499-571

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#507 Fray Maturino Gilberti

leaf book E. Schaffer - "The New Worlds; need of a printing press had been apparent to the missonaries from the tiem of their Z 232 G 46 S45 (1963) HEHL arrival + eventually the petitions of Fray Juan de Zumarraga, the 1st bishop of Mexico were answered. 20 years after the coming of Cortez, a press was sent to Mexicoby the House of Cromberger in Seville. It was set up in Mexico City by Juan Pablos, a member of that firm, who thus became the 1st to practive his craft in the Western Hemisphere. (an Italian, born Giovanni Paoli, a native of Bresica) From its beginning the Mexican Press was devoted almost exclusively to the promulgation of Christianity. The 3 great religious orders which evangelized Mexico the Augustinians, Dominicans + Franciscans were active in the production of books in the native languages of the Indians, the Franciscans to a marked degree."

J. Pablos - June 15, 1559 "Dialogo de doctrina Christiana en la lengula de Mechuacan" was completed. The title page woodcut was taken from E. Whitchurch's See #504 - ed. of 1548 "Paraphrase fo Erasmus upon the Newe Testament." The woodcut had 1st appeared 5 yrs. earlier in the Dialectica of Aristotle ed. by Fray Allonso de la Vera Cruz. J. Pablos employed A. de Espinosa who had come to Mexico in 1550 + worked fro him for some 8 yrs. Espinosa was to prove to be 16th C. Mexico's finest printer. In 1559 Espinosa started work on his own + printed a Latin Grammer by Father Gilberti.

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Met. M. of Art 6/00

-Earliest known Japanese sutra - 712 - The official scriptoria was probably abolished at the end of the 8th C as the court moved away from Nara - Ancient Near East - scripts 1) logographic (wordsigns) 2) syllabic (signs that stand for syllables) 3) alphabetic - Arahasis - the Babylonian myth of the great flood. - Papyrus continued in use in Egypt as a substitute for the expensive vellum before paper became widespread around the 10-11 C. - Behari - from the region of Behu, a cursive script appeared in India in 14th C.

Music notation 1) Square - developed in Ilo de France in late 12th C 2) unheightened staveless heumes 3) Hufunagelschrift.

Gunst Z 239 A74 F73 1999 F Franklin, Colin Exploring Japanese Books + Scrolls Paper - in former times it was made of gampi (WIkstrcemia gampi) + the paper mulberry, but now mitsumata (Edgeworthia papyrifera) is used Nara - 710-794 Heian - until 1185 "early" - 1st 100 yrs Dai hannya - kys Sutra (Sermans + Sayings of the Buddha Kasuga - ban books - 13th C

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During its 3000 years of use, cuneiform writing recorded at least 15 different languages including Sumerian, Babylonian + Asyrian. The latest coneiform inscription dates to 75 A.D. Cuneiform was succeeded by Aramic script which in turn was replaced by Arabic in the 7th C.

1493 - The first European clergy to reach the New World were Franciscans who accompanied Columbus on his 2nd voyage.

Sikhism - a revolutionary new faith Holy book - the Guru Granth Sabib - contains the work of the Gurus - written in the Punjabi language with a script called Gurmukhi - compiled by the 5th Guru, Arjun in 1604 founder of Sikhism - Guru Nanak (1469-1539) holiest site - Golden Temple in city of Amitser Muslim Mughal emperors - descended from Timer 1st - Babur 1526 (d. 1403) Hindu maharajas Persian shahs Punjab - a province of the norht of India - homeland of the Sikhs land of 5 rivers Lahore - historic capital of Punjab - founded in 1526 THe Ramayans topic of Rama - (wife Sita) (Tama;s travels) an incarnation of the god Vishnu

Singh - meaning lion. Gurus - taught that there is only one God - rejected the idea that one religion was better than another.

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