- Bound books were known in Asia at least by the 8th C. Muslim + later European traders introduced new binding, decoration. Writing + printing traditions that were adopted in varying degree throughout the continent. -Kamakura period - Japan 1185-1333. -Calligraphy (artful handwriting) has been considered the ultimate art form by the Chinese educated elite since at least the Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE) -Buddhism - 4000 yr journey from India to China, Korea + Japan in 525 -Forms of Chinese painting wall painting hanging scrolls screens hand scrolls albums fans -Kalpasutra (Book of Ritual) - also known as the Book of the Paryusana Festival - still recited by Jain monks in an annual festival that occurs during the rainy season. -Newars - among the earliest people to settle the Kathmander Valley (Nepal) -Bhagavad Gita (Song of the Lord) -The use of multiple ink colors is a tradition in Nepal + Mongolia as well as in Tibet. -Koran - compiled in written form in 651 -gold against a blue background - found in Nepalese, Mongolia, Chinese, Tibetan + Korean Buddhist manuscripts. - Mongolian Buddhist Canon is based upon the Tibetan version.
-In the era of Nara (710-794) hemp was the most important material for paper making, kozo + gampi being in the capital to Kyoto, hemp paper declined in favor of Kozo. -Bunsho Jugaku - Paper making by hand in Japan (1959) - By the Nara period some 9 provinces were making paper. By the end of the 8th C the number had swelled to 20 Isamu Noguchi - Washi - the WOrld of Japanese paper (TS 109 5 J3 H78
-India Malwa region (Hindu0 - strong red, green + yellow colors typical of a painting style that flourished in the region until about 1650. -Shiraz - a city south western Iran - home to some of the finest MSS producing workshops of the 16th C.
Ottoman Art from Khalili Collection 8/01
- tugras - imperial signatures - each Ottoman sultan had hsi own monogram or turgras, a stamp of imperial authority - Koran - compiled + written down in 651 - a dervish or sufi is a Muslim mystic - often the Koran is divided into 60 seperately bound parts so that itcan be read in its entirety in 30 days. - gold ink + pigment on laid paper - gold ink + pigment on wove paper watermarked - the direction of Mecca (called the kiblah) is marked on the wall by a niche 9called its mihrab) which is often elaborately decorated - the central = most venerated art of Islam is calligraphy
wove style of mould - the beaten fibers were poured upon the mould + the moist sheet left to dry upon it. laid type of mould dipped into the vat of suspended fibres. The invention of this type of mould was one of the great advancements in papermaking as from it the sheets could be removed immediately after forming + emabled the artisan to form sheets continually upon the same mould.
- wove paper - paper which has a smooth surface + does not show any laid lines. - only became common by the end of the 18th C.
Greeks wrote with a reed pen. Egyptians wrote with a brush. In general Sefardi (Iberian peninsula + N. Africa) scribes used reed pens, while the Ashkenazim (N. + East Europe) used quills. Haggadah - books of prayers + recitations read at the Passover sedu. Kabbalah - esoteric + mystic teachings of Judaism Mishuah - collection of oral laws ed. by R. Judah ha Nasia towards the end of the 2nd C. Talmud - body of teaching which comprises the commentary + discussions of the Mishnah by the amorian (3-5 C. Rabbis) The Baby. Talmud comprises the discussions carried on in the academies fo Baby. The Jerusalem Talmud - those originating the J.
watermark 4^0 -middle of inner margin - 8^0 - Top of inner margin
- Many of the 1st printers + publishers were ecclesiastics - clerics, secular priests, monks + friars. - It was not the Persians or Arabs who opposed printing. Rather it was the Ottoman Turkish conquerors who imposed restrictions against printing upon the Arab population. It was this prohibition 9not hostility to nonhandwritten Korans) that squelched Arabic printing in the Near East until it was introduced by Mohammed Ali in Egypt in 1822.