93 Carex mirabilis Dewey
Spikes 6 to 8, roundish-ovate, sessile, aggregated; perigynia spreading, ovate, scabrous above, two toothed, narrowly winged; scale ovatelanceolate, about two thirds the length of the perigynium. Culms about two feet high, flowers in May; about fields and borders of woods.
Wisconsin; Illinois; & Michigan
94 Carex straminea, Schkur.
Spikes 3 to 7, roundish-ovoid, approximate; perigynia orbicular-ovate, beaked, compressed, ciliate-serrate, two toothed, widely winged, a little longer than the ovate-lanceolate scale; achenium sessile, oval. Culms about two feet high; flowers in May.
Plate VIII Figure 19 a head of spikes; b perigynia; c same when young; d section of same; e scale; f section of the culm.
Wisconsin, Illinois, Southern Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and about Lake Superior. Extends northward to the arctic regions.
[?] 3 Staminate and pistillate flowers in separate spikes on the same culm. (Carex proper) * Perigynia without a beak; stigmas two
95 Carex rigida, Goodenough.
Syn. C. saxitilis, Am. authors, not of Lin. C. Bigelovii, Torr. C. Washingtoniana Dewey. C. nigra Schw. (not of All.)
Sterile spike single, erect, short peduncled; fertile spikes 2 to 4 cylindrical, erect, rather lovely flowered, the lower peduncled, separated about their length, lowest bract equaling the culm, with rounded auricles; stigmas rarely three; perigynia oval, rather pointed at each end, compressed, glabrous; pistillate scale ovate-oblong, a little shorter than the perigynium; culm about a foot high, rigid scabrous above, but little exceeding the leaves. Flowers in June.
About Lake Superior (Dr D. Houghton) - Found on the mountains of New England, and in the Arctic regions. A native also of Europe.
96 Carex torta, Boot.
Sterile spikes one, or rarely two; fertile 3 or 4, elongate, narrowly cylindrical or slightly club-shaped, loosely few-flowered at the base, at first erect, finally spreading or drooping; bracts with oblong auricles, very slightly sheathing, the lowest about the length of the culm; perigynia elliptical, tapering to a distinct point, nerveless, the tips spreading or obliquely recurred at maturity, scarcely exceeding the narrow obtuse scale; achenium broadly obovate, much shorter than the perigynium; culms smooth, about two feet high, flowers in May. Wet meadows
Jefferson County Ohio (Mr Flanner) Also in N. York & the N. England states.
97 Carex vulgaris, Fries
Syn. C. [caespitosa?], Good (not of Linn) C. Goodenovic, Gay.
Sterile spikes one, or rarely two; fertile 2 to 4 approximated, oblong, erect, densely=flowered, occasionally staminate at the apex; lowest tract about the length of the culm, with small blackish rounded auricles; perigynia ovate=elliptic stalked, nerved, especially towards the base, longer and much broader than the obtuse [appeared?] black scale; Culm two and a half feet high; flowers in May. Wet meadows.
Plate X Fig 1 - a top of the culm showing the spikes, one half the natural size; b, a fertile spike; c the perigynium d section of the same; e the scale; f a young perigynium & stigmas; e achenium.
At Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Illinois; & about Lake Superior.
Found also in N. England and northward to the Arctic regions.
This is one of the species of Carex cut for hay.