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The numerous ponds or small lakes almost everywhere dotting the surface of the country are often surrounded by sedge marshes. The roots of these plants frequently extend over the surface of the water around the margin of the lake thus reducing its superficial area. This process continued for a series of years gradually covers the whole lake with a floating turf, destined to increase [gradually] in thickness and strength until the lake is entirely filled. A person walking over the surface of the newly covered lake will cause the turf to sink beneath him as he passes along [rendering his] exciting apprehensions [of] for his safety. In other cases the turf has become sufficiently solid to bear up a loaded team, though it is but a very short distance down to a large body of water. In several cases where heavy embankments of earth have been constructed for rail road over these concealed bodies of water the bank has suddenly sunk and entirely disappeared, causing the soft mass of black soil to bulge up on each side. An additional quantity of earth becomes necessary to bring up the "grade" to the proper level. Three or four instances of this kind have occurred in the construction of the

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