Farfel Notebook 08: Leaves 499-571

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Johannes Tortellius - The scholar Giovanni Tortelli was a central figure in Italian humanism. A native of Arezzo, he studied Greek in Constantinople (ff 1435) and eventually became an intimate friend of Pope Nicolas V. He was appointed as the 1st librarian of the Vatican Library + he compiled the 1st catalogue. The De Orthographia, completed in 1499 is a detailed treatise arranged alphabetically, on the spelling of Latin words that are derived from Greek. At the end there is a postscript + poem in praise of printing by Girolamo Bologni (14541517). Goff lists of total of 9 ed.

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503 Andrew Stewart Helpringham, England Dec. '99 35£ = $56 Tortellius, Johannes. (born at Arezzo about 1400, died about 1466) Orthographia (Ed. Hieronymus Albertucci Bononius) Treviso: Hermannus Liechtenstein for Michael Manzolus, 2 Apr. 1477 f^0 + 4^0 Variant, colophons known giving either the name of the printer or the publisher Ref: HC. 15565. Polain (B) 3791. Pr 6469-6480 BMC VT 887, 891 Goff T-396 Copy: HEHL, LC, WArt GL

BMC VI De Orthographia dictionum e Graecis tractarum. Printed for Manzolus by Liechtenstein, whose name is substituted for that of anzolus in some copies. 345 leaves, the 1st + last blank. 8^a, 44 lines. 212x125mm. Types: 96R (P3) light text type on large body. Single Qu, M c irregular diagonals, large O, bowl of b circular + of medium size. Gk A large heavy Greek, fount lower case only. Capital spaces; also some spaces for Greek. First letter of each paragraph in the vocabularly set out. Quue I, sheets K2, 3, quires i-l and sheet m^3 are quarto, -- the book ends c some noteworthy verses by the editor on the happy invention of printings + the revolution effected by it. Tortellius - Grammarian + Papal librarian of Pope Nicolas V (1447-1455 H. Liechtenstein, the 2nd printer of Vicenza, + like his predecessor there a native of Cologne, began his career as printer in Vicenza, printing a few books in Treviso in 1477, returning to Vicenza, + finally settling in Venice. (d. 1497)

HEHL #104256 rub. in red + blue

my leaf is i' (of 10) --> a 4^0 (quarto) L begins on h^2 (of 8) ends on i^3 (of 10)

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504 Andrew Stewart Helpringham, England Dec. '99 35£ = $56

Erasmus, Desiderius. (1469-1536). The 1st tome or volume of the Paraphrase of Erasmus Upon the Newe Testamente. f^0 London: Edwarde Whitchurche, the last daie of Januarie 1548-[149] - in flete strete at the signe of the sunne Ref: S.T.C. 2854 Herbert 72 D. + M. 45 R.-Pctre 81.

Copy: Univ. of Virginia, BM, Bodleian, HEHL, Newburg

237x128 mm, Black letter, 2 volumes, total # of leaves 1014. A full page contains 48 lines. Text of N.T. divided into sections + printed in a smaller type. Vol. I 652 ff Vol. II 362 ff Extant copies of the 1548 printing of the Erasmus' Praphrase exhibit mixed gatherings from disctinct paintings of the text. The Paraphrase played an extremely important role in the religious reforms (set in motion by the Injunctions of 1547) of the reign of Edward VI under Archbishop Cranmer. The purpose of the Paraphrase was to serve as a standard interpretive guide to the V.T. for both clergy + laity. Through using the Paraphrase Cranmer sought to bring the whole nation to understand the N.T. as Erasmus read it. Cranmer was to complete the reform program c the Book of Common Prayer of 1549. 1) Paraphrase 2) 1st Book of Homilies, 1547, Grafton Whitchurche 3) Great Bible 4) 1st English Prayer Book, 1549 express the complete humanistic program as developed in England by Cranmer. The Paraphrase has been called "The Gospel according to St. Erasmus" - represents Erasmus' desire to present the the philosophy of Christ to men of his day through calling them back to its Gospel sources. The complete set of Erasmus' Paraphrase includes all commentaries on all books of the N.T. c the exception of Revelation. Each of the Paraphrases was prepared by a different translator - 4 are known, while the translators

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of Matthew + Acts remain anonymous. Matthew is addressed to Charles V, Mark to Francis I, Luke to Henry VIII + John to Ferdinand. The Paraphrase on the Gospels + Acts were translated late in the reign of Henry VIII under the patronage of Queen Catherine Parr and the editorship of Nicholas Udall (more famous for his play "Ralph Roister Doister"); they were then made official documents of the Church of England by action of the crown in the Injunctions of 1547.

Besides translating + editing the N.T., Erasmus paraphrased all but the Apocalypse between 1517 + 24. Erasmus was not content c the simple, more or less factual annotations of the N.T. that he 1st published in 1516, so he moved on to paraphrase, a comparatively new approach that he used c great effect to heighten + deepen understanding of the Evangelists. His Paraphrases achieved great popularity; many editions of them were printed (1st ed. of the Paraphrases of Matthew, Basel, Froben, 1522) and Edward VI of England decreed that a copy of Erasmus should be placed beside the Bible in all churches.

Erasmus greatest single contribution to scholarship was his edition of the Greek N.T. c parallel Latin translation. Erasmus' version of the N.T. was included in many later editions of the Latin Bible as a substitutde for the Vulgate. Luther used the text of Erasmus as the basis for his German version.

The Edwardian reign did not produce a Bible translation of its own, but in its short 6 1/2 yrs. some 40 ed. of all the previous versions were published. It did, however, print one innovation of Bible publishing--a translation of Erasmus' long popular Latin Paraphrase on commentary.

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E. Whitchurche - one of the official printers to Edward VI. Whitchurche had been an assistant of Richard Grafton who became printer to Prince Edward in May 1545 + royal printer on the accession of Edward to the throne 2 yrs later. Type - Whitchurch's + Hill's 94 textura, Scripture texts, 71 textura. - Erasmus (1516) Novum instrumentum omne - the 1st of 5 succeeding ed. of the Greek NT produced by him over the next 2 decades. Erasmus included some Annotationes on several passages, which were an anticipation in miniature of the far more extensive annotations + paraphrases on various books of the N.T. that he was to go on publishing for the next 2 decades until his death in 1536. - Bible. Greek. Venice, Andreas Torreanus at the Aldine Press, Feb. 1518 - edition princeps of the Septuagint, printed after but published before the Greek O.T. in th Complutensian Polyglot whose publication was delayed until 1520 by the death of Cardinal Ximenes. D.+M. 4594 This is the 2nd ed. of the Greek N.T. set from Erasmus' editio princeps (Froben, 1516) Berkowitz - Queen Catherine (Parr) supplied the funds. The Edwardian reformation was still in a moderate phase + its doctrinal stance as well as literary judgement is reflected in the order which functionally placed Erasmus' Paraphrase on a par c the Great Bible. - Erasmus Paraphrase - translated from the Latin original printed at Basel in 1522. It was frequently read in churches by the clergy + laymen as a substitute for sermons.

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