Farfel Notebook 03: Leaves 135-222

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Missal 1) Calendar 2) Temporale or Proper of Time containing the variable parts of the Mass for every Sunday + weekday throughout the year beginning with the 1st Sun. in Advent. 3) Ordinary (unchanging introductory part, including the Gloria + Credo), Prefaces for various days (always beginning "Vere dignum et justum est" + often set to music) + Canon of the Mass. Tese are usuaally placed in the middle of the Temporale, just before Easter. 4) Sanctorale or Proper of Saints - generally beginning with St. Andrew (Nov. 30) 5) Common of Saints 6) Votive Masses for special occasions; followed by various prayers. - first introit of the Temporale "Ad te levavi animan meam." The Breviary contains the office i.e. the service to be said or sund every day by the clergy at the cnonical hours. These services consist mainly of psalms, interspersed with anti phone, verses, + responses, Together with a few hymns + prayers. The Psalter contains the 150 Psalms, usually preceded by a calendar + followed by the Te Deum + other Canticles, a litany of Saints, + prayers; often too, by Vigils of the Dead. Gradual + Antiphones contain the choral parts of the Mass + Office respectively. Thus the Gradual answers to the Missal, the Antiphoner to the Breviary.

incunabulum - neuter singular incunabula " pleural The designation incunabula for the earliest printed books of Christendom was 1st used in 1653 by Phillippe Labbe in a Latin treatise on the old books of the royal library of Paris.

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Kings, I + II, Books of - 4 C of Israelitish kings from David (his death in 920 BC) to Jehoiachin (in Babylon after 561). Thus they provide a sequal to the books of Samuel, which embraces the reigns of Saul and David. The LXX actually entitles I + II Samuel "Books A + B of the Kingdoms" (Latin Vulgate + K.J.V. subtitle: I + II Books of Kings"), so that I + II Kings become corespondingly" III + IV King (doms)s." Kike Samuel, Kings was written as a unit but was divided in two at the time of the LXX translation about 200 BC>

In all books of devotion with versicles + responses, it was expected that the owner of the book would mark change of subject matter with dabs of red ink over the initial letters of a sentence, + this method of indicating a new paragraph was gradually adopted in secular books. -paging only on the recto or the right side of the folded leaf; the verso or left side page was not numbered.

-By Chaucers time the Church's material success occasioned as much criticism as well as reverance: of the 9 clerical pilgrims, 3 are clearly corrupt, 2 worldly, 1 foolish + only 1, the humble Parson truly deserves our admiration.

feria prima - Sunday secunda - Mon. Septima - Sat. Swquenve of Days of the week for beginning of the year. common yrs Sun. - A Sat. - B Fri. - C Th. - D Wed. - E Tues. - F Mon. - G

Canticles or Odes, ie the passages of Scripture which are sund as hymns, such as Magnificat + the Nunc Dimittis.

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Nara 710-784 Nagaoka 784-794 Imperial capital called Heian Kyoto 794-1868 Kamakura 1192-1313 Shogun's military capital Edo 1603-1865 Administrative capital renamed Tokyo 1868

1440 Paper production - Basel * At what date paper from linen rags was 1st made is still in controversy; but it is generally conceded that during the latter 1/2 of the 14th C linen paper was largely made + well made in the mills of Italy. Sizing, although of service to the penman was of slight benefit to the printer. Paper was "sized" in manufacture by washing or bathing it with a very thin film of glutinous water. To lessen the wear on types + make the sheet more pliable under impression, printers had to dampen sized paper before it could be neatly printed. Properly treated by the printer unsized paper showed the impression of type with even greater sharpness + clearness. Polland "if a half (or rather less) be added to the height of a type page, + a half (or rather more) to its breath, we have a fair approximation to the size of an uncut copy." -Between the yrs. 1000 + 1400 in the hands of the European papermakers, cotton rags were accepted as the most available substitute for the barks + fibers of the Orient. It was used for writing + correspondence. Linen paper has always been prefaced for its claimed superior durability. * - Paper selected for the early book was sudden exact or fairly square It always had deckle or ragged edges. Early papers were not only irregular as to size but were somewhat rhomboidal as to form. Although the deckle edge was of no advantage to everyone, wide margins were approved by the studious, for they were needed for annotation + correction.

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#139 hond - hand Walys - Wales priamus - king of Troy Dardanus - muthical ancestor of the Trojans fonde - find, discover lond - land wryte - write heet - be called (hgten) sone - son wone - wont, custom, abode Thenne - Kentish for Thinne - thin, slender, poor, feble, meager Foun - young deer of 1st year (young desiva) mouche - much, great eke (eek) - also, moreover ben - to be wodebinde - woodbine, honey suckle deynte - (Fr. dainte) value, worth, delight, pleasure fyle - much, many hele - health, prosperity heet - heat couth - known, familiar mone - moon bindings Limp paper " vellum Paper wrappes Leather

Collating - early printers devised 1st the Registers + Tabula the Catchwords, Signatures [inserted] printed on the 1st 2-6 leaves of each quiue (23 letters, J, U + W omitted) [end inserted], Foliation [inserted] numbering of leaves only [end inserted] + Pagination [inserted] numbering of pages [end inserted].

Rx = rubrica. .S. = scilicet .X. 'asteriskos Printing had been established in over 200 towns by the year 1500. Fifteen Oes, prayers attributed to St. Bridget of Sweden (c. 1203-73) each beginning with the vocative 'O'.

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During the 2 centuries after Chaucer's death the language underwent the so called " great vowel shift" in which the pronunciation of each of the long vowels was shifted towards the front of the mouth. Soon after Chaucer's death The Middle English works see + do (pronounced in Chaucer's time say + doh) took on their modern sounds. This change in pronunciation reduced Chaucer's language + spelling progressively more archaic sounding + less intelligible. -Chaucer employed the London speech of his time. It is even doubtful if Chaucer had any important part in making the East Midland the dominant dialect. The speech of the capital would have necome standard English if he had never written a line. But he did add greatly to its prestige + distinction. Chaucer's language, then, is late Middle English of the South East Midland type.

In 1526 Pynson printed 3 Chaucer volumes which are bibliographically distinct + are not connected by general title nor any other link except similarity of forms + identity of date. That 1st collected ed. contains the Canterbury Tales Troilus + Cressida, The House of Fame, Parliment of Fools + several non Chaucerian pieces. The present is, however, the earliest 'critical' attempt at an edition of Chaucer's Works (i.e. Thynne 1532.)

Thomas Godfrey - we know little except that almost all of his 30 odd books were of a religious or controversial nature + that he rarely dated them.

Devotia Moderna" - (a name applied collectively to the Brethren of the Common Life, the Sisters of the Common Life, +the Augustinian CanonsRegular of the Congregation of Windesheim.) All 3 divisions can be traced back to Gerard Groote of Deventer in the Netherlands. (d. 1384).

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