Articles and Speeches by N. C. Newbold, 1945-1946

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all over the country. The Library of Congress probably has the largest collection of race relations material. The 125th Street Branch of New York Public Library has many thousands of books and other material. In the South, Duke University and the University of South Carolina have jointly ten to fifteen or twenty thousand books and other printed material on race relations. Fisk and Howard Universities, likewise, have much available material of this kind. 4. The United Nations Organisations – 1 or 2 Quarters. This new hope of humanity for peace and harmony among nations is now engaged in discussions in London. The delegates there from 51 nations seem to be making a beginning at last in the direction of Woodrow Wilson’s declaration: “Open covenants openly arrived at.” Such a study under the guidance of a well-trained sympathetic teacher would provide opportunities for students which no such group as ever had before this era. This study might include: [column 1] a. The Atlantic Charter b. Casablanca c. Teheran d. Yalta e. Potsdam

[column 2] f. Dumbarton Oaks g. Bretton Woods h. The Foods Conference at Quebec i. Writing the U N O Charter at San Francisco j. The General Assembly of the United Nations Organizations at London k. The U N N R A and its work

In perspective and by way of comparison considerable study might be given to the organization and the work of the League of Nations. Likewise, it would be well to have students review a few of the great landmarks of history – steps made by the human race in the march from all types of slavery to liberty, freedom, democracy, - such as -

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a. Magna Carta b. The American Declaration of Independence c. The Bills of Rights d. Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation e. Franklin Roosevelt’s program to help the “common man” f. Woman’s suffrage

The masses of people in every land throughout the world need to be given the full concept and understanding of the United Nations program for the betterment of every man, woman and child on earth. How can they understand without teachers? If a teacher, particularly a home economics teacher, can have in her background of training, with some experience, a reasonably clear comprehension of what is included in the outline above on the United Nations Organization, she will be a shining light, and evangel for the rights of man wherever she may live and teach. Jeasus said “Ye shall know the Truth, and the Truth shall make you free.” 5. Cooperatives – 1 Quarter The Negro college quarterly published at Wilberforce College, Ohio for December 1945, includes an article by Willard G. Townsend the title of which is “Leadership in the Economy of Living.” Some quotations from the articles are as follows: “Perhaps very few people outside of its 5,555 inhabitants have heard of Tyrrell County, North Carolina. Statistically, it is just another ordinary county of one of the thirteen povertystricken Southern states. There are 625 farms in the county; 114 of them range in size from one-tenth of an acre to ten acres, 181 are from ten to twenty acres, and 236 between twenty and fifty acres. No more than 64 of the farms have an individual acreage of more than fifty acres. Corn is the major crop, with potatoes running second and closely followed by beans and cotton. The County’s Negro population averages about 36 per cent or little over 2,000 people. A great majority of the people of Tyrrell County, both Negro and white, are share-croppers.

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Tyrell County is just one link in that long chain of an agricultural system which feeds upon itself. Yet in Tyrell County a modern miracle happened. These disheartened Negro share-croppers found that they had within themselves the capacity to build a new and fine economic life out of the ashes of their hopeless existence. It all started with a young Negro college graduate from the area who became interested in co-operatives. This young man, after receiving his degree, returned to Tyrrell County and, with great enthusiasm, was able to organize a study club. For many long months he preached and explained the value of consumer co-operation among the Negro farmers of Tyrrell County. Understanding finally conquered, and the black farmers if Tyrrell organized a credit union amongst themselves. A basic democratic organization of thrift and credit, they named it in the Light of Tyrrell Credit Union. That was in 1938 when those farmers began pooling their few dollars to assist each other. By December, 31, 1945, they had made 407 loans totaling £31,853 to each other. During the intervening years they had assisted in taking over mortgages on farms and assisted members to acquire new farms. In addition, through the credit union, twelve members purchased a $22,000 farm which they operate co-operatively. Catching the spirit of democratic co-operation, the little people of Tyrrell explored other avenues in approaching their economic problems in a democratic co-operative fashion. A year later they organized a co-operative store, and, in 1941, a co-operative hospitalization association.” The young Negro college graduate mentioned by Mr. Townsend is Mr. S. P. Dean, principal of the Negro school of Columbia, North Carolina. Indeed, he has wrought a modern miracle. Besides the accomplishments mentioned in the article the co-operative, a credit union, now owns a sawmill which is

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used by both Negro and white people; the Negroes buy many of the supplies needed in their homes and on their farms cooperatively pay cash and save money; the credit [insert] union [end insert] has aided several Negroes to build new or to repair old homes. (I saw three in process of construction in the summer of 1945.) One of the Foundations known as the Good-will Fund has recently appropriated sufficient money to employ Mr. Dean for full time service in cooperatives, credit unions, consumer cooperatives, programs in North Carolina. He will have adequate salary and expense funds to go about the state in the very important service to his people and the state. Three conferences with people and organizations interested have been held in Raleigh in recent months to perfect plans for Mr. Dean’s work among Negro farmers in the state. Two of these were in the Department of Education and the third in the Department of Agriculture on February 3, 1946, at which time plans were made for the release of Mr. Dean from his school position so he can begin his new task within the next month or two. This program has the support of the two State Departments mentioned, Education and Agriculture, the University of North Carolina, the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen, the American Missionary Association, and many individuals. Mr. Dean begins his wider service with the solid support of both races in his home community in Tyrrell County. This enterprise means much to the state and its people. Perhaps no more difficult location could have been found anywhere in North Carolina to undertake such a useful program. The people have learned the significance of working together in cooperatives. The last report of accomplishments is that the Negro people of Tyrrell have a community nest-egg of approximately one hundred thousand dollars. Surely

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home economics teachers – all teachers – could well afford to learn about the principles of an organization which provides such great salvation. As part of this unit on cooperatives the following very important American programs of community or area service should by all mean be included: a. The Rural Electrification Authority b. The Farm Security Administration c. The Federal Housing Authority

On February 5, 1946 newspapers carried two statements: 1. that “contract for construction of approximately 500 miles of electric power lines in eight North Carolina counties at a cost of $516,375.94 was awarded today.” (These lines are to serve 1500 rural people in the eight counties.) 2. “Bids for erection of approximately 575 miles of electric power lines to serve 2200 customers in (six counties) - - will be opened Wednesday (Feb.5) in Charlotte, N. C.” It is no doubt true that many similar contracts are being let for extension of power lines for use of rural people in all our seventeen Southern States. On February 4, 1946 announcement was made in the daily press: “The land program of General Douglas MacArthur already has put into operation in Japan what the Farm Security Administration has been trying to do for a decade in the United States - - - “ The five units of study listed and discussed briefly above, if incorporated into the program for the training of home economics teachers as outlined would require five quarters or approximately three semesters. That is one and a half years of college study, two to four times a week. To summarize – the topics are: 1. “The Science of Living Among Men” 2. The Family 3. Race Relations in the South 4. The United Nations Organization

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