Schlesinger Library

OverviewStatisticsSubjects

People

Lucy Stone

Harringtons

Mr. Kerr.

Students

Hayes

Mr. La Rue Brown

"Benny"

Head Doctor

Mr. Laroque

"inmate"

Helen

Mr. LaRue Brown

"Mother Van Waters"

Helen L. Towns

Mr. O'Brien

A

Helen Pavers

Mr. O'Shea, Director of Prison Camps

A Student of Framingham

Helen Powers

Mr. Rainten

A Student of N. Wing

Helen Whitehead

Mr. Richard Gingras

A. P. URAVICH, Acting Chief, Personnel Division

Henry Hardy

Mr. Scudder

Aaron

Henry Hendy

Mr. Smith

administration

Henry Mascarello

Mr. Stern

Administrative Assistant to the Chief Justice

HJ Gnerre

Mr. Vaugh

Al Ferranti

House

Mr. Walter Hayes

Alan Hodder

house girls

Mrs Badger

ALBERT MORRIS

House of Representatives

Mrs Castle

Alice Lovejoy

Howard

Mrs Danvers

Alma Bourbeau

Howard Dearborn

Mrs Fiske

Andre E Hardy

Howard Dearnborn's

Mrs Heffeman

Andre H.. Hardy

Howard Frances Dearborn

Mrs Jane Reising

Ann

Howard's

Mrs Keefe

Ann Hendrixson

Howie

Mrs L. Thompson

Anna Barnes

inmate

Mrs Lacocque

Anna M. Free

inmatees

Mrs Larocque

Anna Moran

inmates

Mrs Margaret Newton

Anna Robinson

inmates of prisons

Mrs Marie Lavocque

Anna T. W. Robinson

Irene Shillen

Mrs Mary Lee

Anne Gladding

Irish

Mrs Maude Van Waters

Anne Markery

J. Kerrigan

Mrs O Neal

Anne Markey

J.B

Mrs R Gingras

Anne Maskery

J.P.H.

Mrs R. Gingras

ANNE REILLY

Jack

Mrs Ripley

Annie Poole

Jack Black

Mrs Stove

Appalachian region

Jack Larson

Mrs Thomas

Arthur Cronquist

Jack's

Mrs Thompson

Asst Commissioner Mr O Shea

JackBlack

Mrs Wilson

attorney

Jacob Black

Mrs. Austin

Attorney Claude Cross

James Kerrigan

Mrs. B.

Attorney, Louis Nordlinger

James White

Mrs. Badger

attorneys

Jean and Donald

Mrs. Clarke

Aunt Mayo

Jeanne Tetrault

Mrs. Cross

Aunt of Our Miss O' Keefe

Jerry

Mrs. Helen L. Towne

authorities

Jim

Mrs. Hollard

Baby David

Jim Kerrigan

Mrs. Hollared

BAPTISTE

Jimmy

Mrs. Lewis S. Thompson.

Barry

Jimmy cook

Mrs. Maude Van Waters

Bennett's

Jimmy Hoffa

Mrs. Melvin

Bessie Beatty

Joe

Mrs. Older

Betty Riley

Joe Flaherty's

Mrs. Ralph Van Waters.

Betty Tenney

Joe Gnerre

Mrs. Rose

Bishop Lock

John

Mrs. Smith

Board

John A. Chmielinski, Special Sherriff Norfolk Couty

Mrs. Thompson

Board of Trustees

John A. Gavin

Mrs. Wellsman

Bode and Sarah

John A. Gavin. Commissioner

Ms Castle

Bonnie Jasper

JOHN BLACK

Muscular Dystrophy Board

Boston Post

JOHN F. GRODEN

MVW

Brig Gen Dr. E. Woods

John Furtado

MVW/K

brother

JOHN M. REED

N. Wing

Cardinal

John McGrath

National Andabor Society

Cardinal Cushing

JOHN R. D. MC CLINTOCK

National Broadcasting Company

Cardinal Cushings

JOHN S. MCCANN

Negro attorney

Cardinal Richard Cushing

Johnnie

Nonie

Cardinal's

Johnnie F

Nonie J. Terexia

Carol

Johnny

Nonie J. Texeria

Catholic

Jon Furtado

North Wing

Catholic Chaplain

Jose Pereira

Nurses

Catholic Chaplain at Walpole

Joseph Gnerre

Nursing Assistants

Cecile

Jospeh T. Gnerre

officer

Cecile Theriault

judge

Officer Usher

Cecile Therwault

Judge Garrity

officers

Cecile Thewault

Judge Lane

Our Lord

Chaplain Kellett

Judge Pence

Palmer C. Scafati

CHARLES C. WORTH

Judge R Pence

parents

CHARLES E. GENNERT

Judge Tauro's

Parnell Thomas'

Charles Thomas

judges

Parole

Charlie Woods

Judith Van Damen

Parole Board

Chessie

Judy & Barry Van Deman

parole board's

chief assistant

Judys

parole boards

Chief Justice Tauro

Julie

parole lady

Chief Justice Tauro in the Suffolk Superior Court.

Kay Larkin

Parole Off.

children

Kenyon Scrudder

parolee

Chistine

Kim

Pat

Clarence

Kimberly

Pat Dearborn

CLAUDE B. CROSS

Kittie Rivers

Patricia

Cliffy

L Havingam

Patricia Ducharme

Co ordinator, Mr. Pozerycki

L.M Gabriel

Paul

Co. of Correction of Mass

Laney Onley

Paul and Julie

Codman & Appleton

Larocque

Paul F. Halliman. Gr/ Secy.

Com of Correction

Larry May

Paul Honneyman

Com. of Correction

Lavocque

Paul V. Buckley

Com. of Correction of Massachussetts

lawyer

Paul V. Buckley, Esq

Commisioner

lawyers

Pauline

Commissioner

Leader of the Rangers

penologist

commissioners

Legal Medicine man

Philip Roberts

Commissioners of Correction and Wardens

Lenny Lussier

Phillips Brooks

Commonwealth Service Corps

Levesque

police

Complaint Dept

Lewis

Policeman

Confeman Flloyd Weineb

librarian of The Call

Politics

Congress

Lilliam Smiths

President

Congress of Corrections

Lillian Rivers

President Johnson's

Congressman

Linda

Presidents

Connicks

LOTHROP WITHINGTON

priest

cons

Louis Yassky

Priest Father Foley

Cookie

Louise Blanchard

priests

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy

Louise Ritchie

Principal Officer

Cynthia Thomas

Louise Shaunfield

Priscilla

Dad

Lt Comd in U.S Navy

prisoner

Daniel

Lucille La Flower

prisoners

Daniels Anthony

Lucille La Verne

Pro. Lloyed Weinreb

Dar Van Waters

Lucille Laverne

Prof. James Edwards

Darlene Peters

Lucy Stone

Professor Fuchs of Brandeis

daughter

Lutherian Reverend

Professor Walter Clark

DAVID STONEMAN

Lynn Bogard

R

Dear Doctor

M Leon

R. Gingras

Dear Dr Van Waters

M Newton

Ralph

Dear Gov Dener

M. Newton

Ralphie & Susan

Dear Mr. Brown:

M. V. W

Ranger

Dearborns

M.Newton

Rangers

Debbie

M.V.W

Raoul

Debora

Macmillan Publishing Company of New York

Raoul Lacocque

Defendants

Madilyn Raymond

Raoul Larocque

Defenders committee

Major Barry

Raoul Lavesque

Delar (maid)

Marcy Marcin

Raoul Lavocque

Della Ripley

Margaret

Raoul Lavoque

Democrats

Margaret Derilin

Raoul Lococque

Dennisons

Margaret M. Jones

Raoul's

Dept Supt Mr Butterworth

Margaret Maloney

Rev Kellett

deputy

Margaret Newton

Rev. Cunningham

Deputy Master Norfolk County H. Of C. & Jail

Margaret Newton Gr. I

Rev. John J Foley

Dick

Margaret Newton Yr I

Reverend Kellett

Director Alexander

Margaret R. Barnes

Rhoda

Director of Parole Club

Marguerite B. Jones

Richard

Director of the New England Correctional Manpower and Training Project

Marguerite Richard

Richard Fingras

Doctor

Maria

Richard Gingras

Doctor Baker

Maria Wilson

Richard Gingras.

Doctor Van Water

Mariam Van Waters

Richard Gingrass

Doctor Van Waters & girls

Marie

Rita

Doctors

Marie Lacocque

Rita Rigney

Dolly

Marie Larocque

Robert Clay

Don

Marie Roque

ROBERT J. KURLAND

Donald

Marines

ROBERT J. MORRISEY

Donald and Jim

Marion Fortes

Ronald Pontin

Donald Painten

Marion H. Lupo

Ronie J. Terexia

Donald Painten's

Marry Makers club

Ronnie

Dorothy Durling

Mary

Rose Jelmberg

Dorothy O'Brien

Mary A.

Rufus

Dottie

Mary Ann

Ruth Fulham Mason

Dr

Mary Durak

Ruth M. Reid

Dr Abraham Mycross

Mary Marcin's

Ruth Mabb

Dr Collins

Mary Reny

Ruth P. Morgan

Dr Daniels

Mary Reynolds

Ruth Steadman

Dr Donald Monroe

Mary Sampson

Ruth Van Norden

Dr Gabriel

Mary Smith

Ruth White

Dr Mc Cormick

Mary Tines

S Burdick

Dr Miriam Water

Maryna Barry

S. SIDNEY STONEMAN

Dr Mycross

Mass, 02566

Salvation Army Advisory Board

Dr Poppin, Neuro Surgeon

Mass. Corr. Ist.

Sara and Bode

Dr Truie the Staff Doctor

Maud M Wood

Sara Ann's

Dr Wagener

Max and Mell

Sarah

Dr.

Max D. Stern, Esq.

Sarah's

Dr. Alexander Meiklejohn

Max Stern

Sawyer Sylvester

Dr. E. Woods

MAYER RABINOVITZ

SDG

Dr. Earl K Holt

MD board

SDG Co ordinator Victor Pozerycki

Dr. Hepner

Medley Home girls

SDG Member

Dr. Meiklejohn

Melll Farr

SDG members

Dr. Miriam

Members of the cast & all Students of N Wing

SDG members.

Dr. Salisbury

men

Senate

Dr. Tim Leary's

Merdok McDonald

Senior Rangers

Dr. Wood

Merry Makers club

Sheriff Hedges

E

Mike Gagine

Shoe man

E Perine

Milifsa

SINGER, STONEMAN & KURLAND

Ed Mello

Millicent Pinkham

SINGER. STONEMAN & KURLAND

Editor of the Mercury

Ministers Widow

Sir Barry

Edmund Smith

Miriam

Sir Sexton

Edna

Miriam Thomas

sister

Educational Dept

Miriam Van Waters

Sisters

EDWARD C. PARK

Miss Anne Gladding

Social Service

Edward J Kelly

Miss Anne Gladding(the Bishop)

social workers

Edwin a Mason, Wildlife Management Director

Miss Bode

Staff

Edwin Powers

Miss Cecile Theriault

Stanley Pasiecznik

Eliza Lesine

Miss Connor

state lady

Elizabeth Woods

Miss Flacker

Student

Emily Clark

Miss Foster

Student at Framingham

Emily's

Miss Frances Frecine

Student Body

EMMANUEL KURLAND

Miss Gladding

Student of N Wing

Erminia Luongo

Miss Glading

Student of N.W

Ethel I. Bernard

Miss Hinkley

Student of North Wing

Eugene Papointe

Miss Judith Van Deman

Students

Eva Budd

Miss Judith Vann Daman

Students of Framingham

Ex-Secretary of Her Haker

Miss Keefe

Students of the Cast

Experimental College

Miss Kelley

Students of the Women's Reformatory at Framingham

family

Miss Kilburn

Superintendent

Family's

Miss Klinge

Superintendent of Framingham prison

Father

Miss Lee

Superintendent Palmer C. Scafati

Father Foley

Miss M. Gabriel

Superintendent.

Father Geswell

Miss Mary Lee

supervisor

Father Moran

Miss Miner

Supt

Father Toby

Miss Miriam Thomas

Supt. Women's Reformatory

Federal District Court

Miss Nelson

Susan & Ralphie

Ferdinand Buson

Miss Nonie J. Texeria

T McKennon

Florida

Miss O' Keefe

T McKennon, Deputy

Floyd Weinreb

Miss O'Keefe

taylor

Fords

Miss Orsi

Teamsters

Forestry Transfer Board

Miss Publicover

The Assembly

Fr Foley

Miss Smith Petersen

The Call

Fran Mckearney

Miss Stevens

The Call Bulletin

Frances

Miss Thompson

The Chief Justice

Frances J. Garrison

Miss Vacstock

The Commissioner

Francis

Miss Van Waters

The deputy

Francis and Rita

Miss Voetsch

the Girls of North Wing

Frank

Miss Water

The National Wildlife Federation

FRANKLIN N. FFLASCHNER

Miss Waters

The Olders

FRANKLIN N. FLASCHNER

Miss Wheeler

The State

Frankline N. Flaschner

Monsignour Barry

The Students of Framingham

Fred

mother

Theresa Rodrigues

Fremont Older

Mother Lee

Thomas O. Keef

Friend of Framingham

Mother to be

Thorns

Friends of Framingham

Mother Van Waters

Tip

Friends of Framingham,

mothers

Tom Paine

Furtado, John

Mr & Mrs Robert Ducharme

Tony

Gail Ann

Mr Austin McCormick

Travis

Gen. Washington

Mr Butterworth

Tree Surgeon

Gene Budd

Mr Butterworth, deputy

Uncle

General McArthur

Mr Butterworth, the Deputy

UPA

Gerrit Smith

Mr Coggins

UPA worker

Gerritt Smith

Mr Collins

Van Waters

Gerry

Mr Gavin the Commissioner

veteran patients,

Gerry Swinson

Mr Grass

visitors

Gerry's father

Mr Howard Dearborn

Vivian

girls

Mr Newton

volunteer counselors

Gladys A. Rivers

Mr O Shea

W-30407

Glenda Nielsen

Mr O' Neil

W. Franklin Wood, Director

God

Mr Older

Walter Hayes

Goe Gnerre

Mr Pitcher

Walter King of the Mass. State Employment Service

Gov Dever

Mr Pitchers

Waltham, Mass

Gov Herley

Mr Raoul Larocque.

Water E. Hayes

Gov. Talmadge

Mr Scafati

wife

government

Mr Seckler

Wilbert J. Ingram

Governor

Mr Severn

WILLIAM V. HOVEY

Governor Curley.

Mr Usher

Wilson

Governor Peabody's

Mr. and Mrs. Connick

Wilton Vaugh's

Grace Mary

Mr. Black

WITHINGTON, CROSS PARK & GRODEN

Grace Sundquist

Mr. Black.

Woman of Framingham

Grade Officer

Mr. Channing

Women at Framingham

graduate students

Mr. Connick

Women of Framingham

Gregg & Co.

Mr. Cross

Women Offenders of Framingham

GS Hagly

Mr. Dennison

women voting

guards

Mr. Flanagan

Women's Clubs

H

Mr. Flaschner

Womens Reformatory

H Hardy

Mr. Fleschner

Womens Reformatory at Framingham

H R M Leans

Mr. Furtado

Work Officer

H. Hardy

Mr. Gene Budd

Yanksy

Hamish Hone

Mr. Gingras:

Yasky

Hardy

Mr. Hayes

Yassky

HAROLD SINGER

Mr. Hepner

Zaleski

Harpers Magazine

Mr. Jack Black

[Cornelia?] Hoffman

Harriette Fernandes

Mr. John Black

[X?] Most sincerely Lucy Stone

Places

"Board Cell"

Congress

Norfolk

"the Board"

correctional institutions

North Wing

#9

corrections

NY

01701

court

NY State

01760

court room"

NYC

02071

courts

OFFICE OF Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association, 3 PARK STREET.

02192

Courts of Mass

Ohio

10 block

Cupertino, Calif

open Court

10 block D. S. U

Cuptertino, Calif

P.O Box 207

1075 Pleasant St

Danbury

Patent Office

11 Wrentham Rd

Department of Correction

Penal Inst

11 Wrentham Rod

Director of Parole Club

penetentary

111 Beacon Street

Director of the New England Correctional Manpower and Training Project

plant

13-10

E. Wing

population

130 South Street

East Cambridge Court House.

print shop

14 Clark Road

East Wing

prison

14 Clark St

Educational Dept

Prison Hospital

14 Clark Street

farm

Professor Fuchs of Brandeis

176 Hillcrest Road

Forester Cont

Prov

177 Centre St, Rox

forestry camp at Carver, Massachusetts

Radclifee Archive Library

19 Clark Street

Forestry Camp at South Carver

rectory

19 West 103rd St

forestry camps

Reformatory for Women

19 WEST 103RD ST.

Forestry Transfer Board

Reformatory for Women at Framingham, Mass

19 West One Hundred and Third Street, New York

Framingham

Research Office

193 Orms St, Providence

Framingham Chapter MDAA

Rochelle

193 Orms Street Providence R.I

Framingham Mass

Rochester

281 Shawmut Avenue

Framingham, Mass

Roxbery

281 Showmeet Ave

Framingham, Mass 01701

S. Walpole

31 MILK STREET

Framingham, Mass.

S. Walpole, Mass

31 MILK STREET, BOSTON MASS, 02109

Framingham, Massachusetts

S. Walpole, Mass.

32 Hubbard Park

Framingham, Massachusetts 01701

Salvation Army Advisory Board

335 Grafton St

Framingham, Massachusettts

San Francisco

339 grafton st

Framingham, Massachussetts

San Quentin

35 Dudley Street

Framingham, Massachussetts 01701

Sandwich, Mass

39 grafton St

Framingham. Mass

Santa Clara County

44 Belcher Ave

Friends of Framingham

Sch Library

44 Belcher Avenue

Friends of Framingham,

school

47 Long Hill Rd

Gardner Auditorium in the State House in Boston Mass

Schs Library

527 Columbus Ave

Georgia

Sct Library

527 Columbus Avenue

Good Shepard home

Senate

61 Village Ave, Dedham, Mass

Gregg & Co.

Shady Hill

71 Warner Street

Guild of Our Lady of Ransom

Shelly reform school

73 TREMONT STREET

Hall River

Shelton, Conn

78 Revere Street

Hall River, Mass

Shirley

79 Rice Street

Harmony Mews

So Walpole

8 Beacon Street, Boston 02108

Harvard and Yale

So Walpole, Mass

8 Beacon Street. Boston 02108

headquarters in Boston

So. Walpole, Mass

??

Heaven

South Carver

A Student of Framingham

Herpatology Club

Springfield, Mass

A Student of N. Wing

Hilltop

St James Church at Porter Square. Cambridge.

AA

home

St John's

Adams Hall

Hospital

St. Charles

Advocation

House

St. Clement's Rectory

America

house of correction

St. Mary's Rectory

Amherst

House of Representatives

St. Marys Rectory

Annex

Institution

State Hospital

Appalachian region

institution.

State House

Arkansas City

institutions

State of Mass

army

Irish

State Prison

Ashland, Mass.

Jail

Stone House

Asst deputys office

jail at Dedham

Student at Framingham

Aunt Nellie O'Donnell

Japan

Student of Framingham

avocation

Jymon

Student of N Wing

B-10

Kansas

Student of N.W

B-10 D. S. U

LA

Student of North Wing

Barbers

Lady of Lourdes Church in Jamaica

Students of Framingham

Battenville

LAW OFFICES

summer camp

Batterville

Liberty Hall

Superintendent of Framingham prison

Belmont

library

Supt. Women's Reformatory

Bermuda

Literary Group

ten (10)block D. S. U

Big House

Long Island

The Assembly

Biography class

Long Island Hospital

The Call

block

Los Angeles

The Commonwealth Massachusetts

Block #9

Lyam School for Boys

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

block nine

Lyman

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Dpeartment of Correction

Board of Parole

Lyman School

The National Wildlife Federation

boards

Lysander

The State

Boston

M.C.I. Walpole

The Students of Framingham

BOSTON 9

M.E. Church South

THE SUPERIOR COURT

Boston Ad club

M.G.H

The Veterans Hospital

Boston City Hospital

Macmillan

The Woman's Journal, No. 3 PARK STREET.

Boston Mass

Macmillan Publishing Company of New York

the yard

Boston University

Macmillan's

Tremont Temple

Boston,

Madison

Uncle Jimmys

Boston, Mass

Madison, Wiscconsin

United States

Boston, Mass.

Marlboro Junior Chamber of commerce

UPA

Boston, Massachusetts

Marry Makers club

UPA Office

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 02108

Mass

VA neuropsychiatric hospital

Boston, Massachussets

Mass 02071

Vermont

Box #100

Mass 02566

Vermont?

Box 00

Mass Gen Hospital

Veterans Administration Hospital

BOX 00 #41867

Mass Institute for Penal Reform

Vietnam

Box 100

Mass Institute for Penal Reforms

Virginia

Box 100, Charlestown 29, Mass State Prison

Mass, 01701

W. Concord, Mass

Box 100, South Walpole, Mass 02071

Mass, 02566

W. Concord, Mass.

Box 100, South Walpole, Mass. 02071

Mass, 2566

Walls of Framingham

Box 100, South Walpole, Mass. 02701

Mass.

Walpole

Box 100.

Mass. 01701

Walpole State Prison

Box 207

Mass. Corr. Ist.

Walpole,

Box 232

Mass. Institute of Penal Reform

Walpole, Massachusetts

Box 99

Massachusetts

Walpole.

Bridgewater

Massachusetts Correctional Institution, Sout Walpole

Walter King of the Mass. State Employment Service

Brockton

Massachusetts Defenders Committee

Waltham Watch Co.

Brockton, Mass

Massachusetts Service Corps

Waltham, Mass

Brockton, Massachusetts

Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association, 3 PARK STREET,

Ward 11

C Falls House

maximum section

Ward 11 M.G.H

Calif

McClean Hospital

Washington

California

McLean Hospital

Water Town

Cambridge

McLean Hospital, Waverly, Mass

Watertown, Mass

Camp Wonderland

Medford, Mass. 02155

Waverly

Cape

Medley Home girls

WAVERLY 79, Massachusetts

Capitol

Members of the cast & all Students of N Wing

WEST CONCORD, MASS

Capitol Hall

Mendon, Mass

West Somerville, 44 Mass.

Carver's Saloon

Mendon, Massachusetts

West Wing

Catholic Chaplain at Walpole

Merry Makers club

West wing Grade

cell

Methuen

West, Concord, Mass.

Center Falls

minimum section

Western State

Centre Group

Minnesota

White Building

Chandler St.

Mr. Black.

Williamstown, Mass.

Chapel

Mr. R. Hallowell's

WITHINGTON, CROSS PARK & GRODEN

Charlestown

Mt Pleasant

Woman of Framingham

Charlestown, Mass

Muscular Dystrophy Associations of America, Inc.

Women at Framingham

Charlestown, Mass.

N Wing

Women of Framingham

Chief Justice Tauro in the Suffolk Superior Court.

N. Wing

Women Offenders of Framingham

church

National Andabor Society

Women's Clubs

circulation department

National Broadcasting Company

Women's Reformatory

City of Boston

National Woman's Rights Convention

Women's Reformatory, Framigham, Massachusetts

Clark

Navy Yard

Womens Reformatory

Clark University in Worcester, Mass

NEEDHAM, MASS 02192

Womens Reformatory at Framingham

Cleveland

Needham, Massachusetts

Woods Hole

Co. of Correction of Mass

New England Board of Higher Education

Worcester

Colorado Girls School

New England Correctional Administrator's Conference

Worcester Mass

Com of Correction

New Hampshire

Worcester, Mass

Com. of Correction of Massachussetts

New York

Worcester, Mass 01604

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS

NEW YORK CITY

Worcester, Mass.

Commonwealth Service Corps

New York City, N. Y

Wrentham, Massachusetts

Concord

New York City, N.Y

Wyman

Concord D. S. U

Newton-Andover Thological School

Yanderbilt Theater

Concord Farm

no 7 Residence

yard

Uncategorized subjects

02566

facets?

Sarah Bode

11 Wrtham Rd

growge?

Temperance

12 ?? Ct

Hall?

Woman's Journal

and flas?

Hartuelly?

Women's Journal

Benf Bishop?

Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association

Women's Temperance Societies

but?

Mrs Hollared

writing continued on right hand side of paper

Cartur?

Nonie J. Terxeria

Writing on bottom

Conmebial?

pleasuus?

writing on left hand side

cxpondide?

Rases?

Written on left hand side

Dr. Miriam Van Waters, Superintendent

remadies?

Esgr M Leavis?

residence??