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and received no longer a response to his cry “more men! more men!” when
the Star Spangled Banner was trailed in the dust on every battle field. then it
was that the North was brought up to the point where it unchained the black
man and put the musket in his hands. (Applause) Then they called (ap-
plause); then we came (applause); and we helped to save the country.

Mr. Douglass said he stood there partly unfitted to address the Conven-
tion on account of the injustice of slavery. He had started from Washington
a free man, but he found ere he arrived here that an invisible chain of
slavery was still upon him. Himself and colleagues were told at railway
stations that they must be served in the kitchen or not at all.9 This incivility
was singly and simply on account of their color, and he defied any one to
show any other reason for it. It was but right and just for the colored people
to use their moral and political power to put a stop to this condition of
things, and that right speedily.

As far as the colored people are concerned there are but two parties in
this country, the Democratic and Republican parties. Men may change as
they please, and factions split off in one direction and the other, wearing
different and specious names, but one is always the party of progress and
the other the party of reaction (applause). For colored men the Republican
party is the deck, all outside is the sea. (Immense enthusiasm.) Messrs.
Trumbull10 and Schurzll are falling back into the party of reaction and are

9. On the northern leg of his train joumey Douglass received equal treatment with white pas-
sengers, but in his own words, “after Cincinnati, he descended to the dead level of ‘race. color, and
previous condition of servitude.’ and from that time onward had occasion for all the patience, philoso-
phy, and good humor he could command." Douglass and his fellow black travelers were not served
food or drink at any southern refreshment stop, or even in their car. Separate railroad cars for blacks
were but one manifestation of Jim Crowism in the 1870s. Although only Florida, Mississippi, and
Texas had enacted Jim Crow laws as early as 1865 and 1866, unofiicial acceptance ofdiscriminatory
practices was almost universal. NNE, 2 May l872; Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long. 261—65.

10. Lyman Trumbull (1831—96). who was born in Colchester, Connecticut, and educated there
at Bacon Academy, became a lawyer and a U5. senator from Illinois. In his three terms in office
(1855—73) Trumbull was in turn a Democrat, a Republican, and finally a Liberal Republican who
supported Horace Greeley for president. When the Liberal Republican movement collapsed, Trumbull
returned to the Democratic fold. During the Civil War Trumbull strongly supported his friend Lincoln.
During Reconstruction he championed reforms favorable to blacks, particularly the Freedmen's Bu-
reau, but congressional veto of his proposals dampened his radicalism and edged him toward a more
moderate political course. Trumbull opposed the impeachment proceedings against President Andrew
Johnson and was one of the seven senators who voted against conviction. In later years, Trumbull
supported Populist candidates in the Midwest and drew up a declaration of principles for the People's
party that was accepted at its St. Louis convention in I894. Ralph J. Roske, His Own Counsel: The Life
and Times of Lyman Trumbull (Reno, Nev, 1979); White, Life of Lyman Trumbull; ACAB 6 : 166;
NCAB l2 : 22; DAB [9: l9—20.

1.1. Carl Schurz 0829-1906), born in Liblar, near Cologne, Germany, and educated at the

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