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INDEX

Blackburn, Luke Pryor, 113—14n

Black Codes: black migration and, 510; interra-
cial marriage and, 105n; Andrew Johnson on,
105—06; in Kentucky, 375n; in Mississippi,
105n; in South Carolina, 105n; vagrancy and,
105n. See also Black laws; Discrimination;
Jim Crowism

Black conventions: in Boston, Mass., 324, 335,
335n; Douglass at, 293, 324, 329, 335; in
Nashville, Tenn., 375; in New Orleans, La.,
293. See also National Negro conventions

Black emigration movement: to Africa, 565; to
Haiti, 57n, 500, 501n; to Jamaica, 500—01,
501n; to Nicaragua, 501. See also Coloniza-
tion of blacks

Black laws, 82, 82n, 83, 594

Black migration to Midwest: black labor and,
530; causes of, 510, 515, 516—22, 525-26,
527—29, 530—33; Democratic Party and, 528;
described as “Exodusters” and, 510; Doug-
lass's opposition to, 497n, 512, 514—22, 525—
30, 565; financial cost of, 520—21; leadership
of, 517n, 520—21n; from Louisiana, 497n,
510, 512, 525; from Mississippi, 497n, 510,
512, 525; opponents of, 521n; relief efforts on
behalf of, 507, 507n, 520—21nn; Republican
Party and, 516, 527—28; from Tennessee,
497n, 510; from Texas, 497n, 510

Blacks: accusations of racial inferiority of, 65—
66, 71, 88, 91—95, 119, 282—83, 370; as
American citizens, 67, 98—99, 120n, 143,
145, 266, 334, 361, 420, 499, 531, 598; bap-
tism controversy over, 262—63, 365—66, 411—
12, 544; benevolent societies and, 419n,
420—21; John Brown and, 531n, 531—33;
characteristics of, 57—58, 90—91, 94—95, 129,
517; civil rights of, 46—50, 56, 78—79, 98.
260—61, 518, 546; Civil War and, 95, 132—33,
177, 211—12, 297—98, 406—07, 416—17, 541;
compared to Chinese, 248—50; compared to
Germans, 65, 386; compared to Indians, 57,
119, 129—30, 206—07, 245—46, 265, 385,
599; compared to Irish, 59, 65, 386; compared
to Jews, 386, 610; compared to Russian serfs,
267, 610; condition of, in U.S., 119, 245—46,
392—93; Confederacy and, 56; as contraband,
68n; Democratic party and, 298—99, 329, 426,
600, 601—03; education of, 87—96, 372, 413,
500, 542—43, 545—46, 600, 619; as elected
officials, 237, 237n, 418, 595, 598; employ-
ment of, 231, 284, 418, 545—46, 610; ethnol-

625

ogy of, 93—96, 153; as farmers, 379, 385-88,
393—94, 609—10; fifteenth amendment and,
271, 360, 361; Freedman's Bank and, 373n;
Freedmen's Bureau and, 572n; future of, in
U.S., 57, 119, 121, 130, 202—04, 206—07;
intellectual capabilities of, 88—96, 392-93; la-
bor unions and, 231n, 231—37; 1andowning by,
202, 248, 610; Lincoln and, 92, 431—40, 482,
591; migration of, 206, 372—73, 385, 394,
496, 497, 497n, 500—01; personal liberty laws
and, 53n; physical appearance of, 207—08; po-
litical rights of, 27—28, 46—50, 98, 260—61.
493, 528—29, 541—42; population of, in New
York State, 581n; population of, in U.S., 130,
142, 178, 318, 318n, 520, 520n, 595; popula-
tion of, in Washington, D.C. , 468; posteman-
cipation achievements of, 361—62, 428-29,
497—98, 499—500, 503, 515, 527, 544—45;
prediction of gradual extinction of, 515; racial
prejudice against, 91—96, 117—18, 120, 385,
482, 522, 545—46; relations with ex-slave-
holders of, 487—89; religious characteristics
of, 56, 94, 421n, 498n; Republican Party and,
297—99, 328, 426, 440, 442-43, 600, 601-
03; sharecropping and, 518, 530; Charles
Sumner and, 398—401; as taxpayers, 525 ,
525n, 527; as teachers, 300, 542, 545—46;
U.S. Constitution and, 67, 80n, 82—85; as vot-
ers, 333—35, 335n, 339, 418, 426, 442—43,
480, 493n, 505, 511, 581; women’s rights and,
173. See also Black soldiers; Black suffrage;
Free blacks; Freedmen; Slaves

Black soldiers: advocates of, 37n; in American
Revolution, 72, 415—16; in Charleston, S.C.,
71n; in combat, 56—57n, 91n, 91—92; compen-
sation for, 20, 25—26; Confederacy and, 27n,
55n, 55—56, 85n, 143; Conscription Act (1864)
and, 67, 67n; as depositors in Freedman's Bank,
550n, 553n; discrimination against, 25—26,
95, 117, 544—45, 591; enlistment of, 20, 23n,
30n, 93n, 297—98, 324, 406, 423n, 541, 545,
593, 601; Enrollment Act (1863) and, 67n; as
laborers and servants, 56—57n; Lincoln and,
55, 433, 434; in Louisiana, 27—28n; northern
press and, 55n; number of, 84, 84n, 117, 338,
406, 434; as officers, 20; promotion of, 20,
25—26; retention of, after war, 84n; from
Rhode Island, 415n; in Richmond, Va., 71n;
valor of, 56—57n, 117, 129, 177, 338; veterans
organizations of, 563; in War of 1812, 72, 415.
See also individual regiments; Union Army

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