Index: Speeches Volume 4

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Page numbers in italics indicate detailed biographical sketches.

Abbe, Cleveland, 381, 381n

Abbott, Joseph Carter, 313

Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, Lord, 17n

Abolitionism: black suffrage and, 84, 363—66; as cause of Civil War, 8; Christianity and, 264; factions in, 608—09; history of, 296—97, 361— 73, 409, 504, 564—65; mission after emancipation, 81, 83—84; moral suasion and, 367; Northern opposition to, 53n; political, 607; principles of, 403, 410, 586; spread of, 228— 29; strategy of, 367, 607—09; Soujourner Truth on, 276n; women and, 8n, 215n. See also Abolitionists; Antislavery; Garrisonian Abolitionists

Abolitionists: American churches and, 363—66, 607—08; annexation of Texas and, 111; black suffrage and, 62; criticize Lincoln, 437; deaths of, 504, 564; Ralph Waldo Emerson describes, 367; factions of, 607, 609; freedmen’s aid societies and, 68n; Fugitive Slave Law (1850) and, 111; in Great Britain, 213n, 221-22, 228; in Massachusetts, 81 , 522, 522n; meetings of, described, 371; meetings of, disrupted, 53n, 84—85; mobs attack, 84, 522, 522n, 608—09; personal liberty laws and, 53n; portrayed as fanatics, 368; racial prejudice of, 607; in Rhode Island, 81; support black migration, 510

Abraham Lincoln Post No. 13, Grand Army of the Republic (New York City), 480—82

Academy of Music, Brooklyn, N.Y., 611; Douglass at, 54n

Act of Abjuration (Netherlands), 192n

Adams, Charles Francis, 22n, 442n

Adams, Henry, 442n

Adams, John, 58—59n, 216n

Adams, John Quincy: antislavery of, 368, 368n; death of, 397n; “gag rule" and, 423; recognition of Haiti and, 204, 204n; Theodore Parker on, 397n, 572n

“Address From the People of Ireland to Their Countrymen and Countrywomen in America" (O'Connell et al.), 323—24n

621

“Address on Colonization to a Deputation of Negroes” (Lincoln), 433n

Admiralty Court (Great Britain), 228n

Ӕsop, 122, 425

Africa, 93, 245, 370, 451, 553n; agriculture in, 384, 609—10; civilization in, 94; colonization in, 208, 565, 591; descriptive accounts of, 94n; explorers of, 94, 94n; missionaries in, 94n; Muslims in, 520n; people of, 272, 319— 20, 389; slave trade and, 606

African Civilization Society, 228n, 421, 421n

African colonization: See American Colonization Society; Colonization of blacks

African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa., 40n

African Methodist Episcopal Church: bishops of, 40n, 86, 427; ministers in, 39nn, 40n

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church: Douglass's affiliation with, 263n

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Elmira, N.Y., 563

Africans: in Santo Domingo, 353n

African Union Methodist Church, Elmira, N .Y.: Douglass at, 562

“Against Hope" (Cowley), 523n

Agitator, 395—96n

Agriculture: in Africa, 384, 609—10; books and papers on, 380—81n, 382n, 383n, 390—91, 391n; Cato on, 382—83; in China, 382; in Egypt, 382, 384; family life and, 389; in Great Britain, 382, 387; in Greece, 384; Horace Greeley on, 382; innovations in, 378-92, 380n, 609—10; in Japan, 382; meteorology and, 380—81, 381n; pests and parasites and, 391; in Rome, 384; small farm theory of, 382n, 382—83, 383n, 609—10; soil fertilization and, 380, 380—81n, 390; state agricultural societies and, 375, 379; in Tennessee, 385—88; treatment of animals in, 388—89

“Agriculture and Black Progress" (Douglass), 375—76; precis of, 609—10; text of, 376—94

Akerman, Amos T., 338n

Alabama (ship), 17—18n, 225n, 225—26, 227n

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Alabama Claims, 558n

Alabama Treaty: See Johnson-Clarendon Convention (1868)

Alabama: legislature of, 117; Reconstruction in, 179n; secession of, 438n; violence against blacks in, 413

Alaska, 354, 354n, 604

Albany, N.Y., 399n; Douglass in, 584, 584n; Douglass speaks in, 146—48, 265—72, 600; Andrew Johnson speaks in, 159n; mobs in, 53

Albany (N.Y.) Evening Journal, 265—66, 584, 584n

Albert (prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), 166n

Alcorn University, Rodney, Miss., 92n

Alden Partridge Military Academy, Middletown, Conn., 7n

Alexander, Archer, 431n

Alexander II (czar), 512n

Alexander VI (pope), 195n

Alexandroffsky, 47n

Alleghany Mountains, 255

Allen, William, 472n

“Alonzo B. Cornell and the Republican Party” (Douglass), 533; précis of, 610—11; text of, 533—42

Alva, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke, 594— 98

Alvord, John W., 552—53n; American Building Block Company and, 550; as president of Freedman's Bank, 552—53n; as trustee of Freedman's Bank, 552, 552-53n, 556

American Anti-Slavery Society: dissolution of, 259; Douglass and, 54n, 80n, 80—86, 200—01; factionalism in, 79-80; founders of, 261n; meetings of, 54n, 199, 206n, 259, 267n; mobs disrupt meetings of, 84—85; schism of, 608; women’s rights and, 81n. See also Garrisonian Abolitionists

American Building Block Company, 550n

American churches: abolitionists and, 607—08; blacks and, 544; defense of slavery and slaveholders by, 363, 365—66, 587

American Church the Bulwarks of American Slavery, The (Birney), 363n

American Colonization Society, 57n, 421n

American Equal Rights Association: Olympia Brown and, 176n; dissolution of, 213—14; Douglass and, 213-14, 217-18; meetings of, 146, 172, 261n; objectives of, 147n; officers of, 214nn, 261n

American Freedmen’s Aid Union, 80n, 82n

American Freedmen's Union Commission, 68n

American Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa., 92—93n

American Missionary Association: Douglass criticizes, 419n; freedmen's aid and, 68n

American Moral Reform Society, Philadelphia, Pa., 383n

American Museum (Barnum), 113

American Party: See Know-Nothing Party

American Revolution, 175n; blacks soldiers in, 67, 72, 415—16; centennial celebration of, 450; compared to Netherlands Revolt, 186, 189, 192; debts from, 455n; principles of, 58— 59, 98, 125, 125n, 157, 415, 450, 592

American Social Science Association, 497n, 510—33

American Spelling Book, The (Webster), 541n

American Tract Society, 553n, 594

American Woman Suffrage Association, 214, 395—96n

Anderson, Osborne P., 531n

Anderson, William Wemyss, 501n

Andersonville Prison, Ga.: atrocities at, 287, 592, 607; conditions at, 114nn, 287, 595; escapes from, 133, 541; Heinrich Hartman (Henry) Wirz and, 287-88n

Andrew, James O., 85n

Andrew, John Albion, 24, 30n, 70, 484; black soldiers and, 30n, 234—35n

Anglican Church: missionaries of, 411; Oxford Movement in, 363n

Anglo-African Institute for the Encouragement of Industry and Art, Washington, D.C., 138n

Anglo-Saxons: achievements of, 47; Norman conquest and, 65; as slaves, 144, 610

Ankarstrohm, D., 615

Annals of the First African Church in the United States of America (William Douglass), 40n

Annapolis, Md., 498n

Anne (queen of England), 165n

Anne of Saxony, 195n

Annual Exposition of the Colored People of North Carolina, Raleigh, N.C.: Douglass at, 609

Anthony, Aaron, 42, 42n, 128n, 135n, 136, 136n

Anthony, David, 306n

Anthony, Henry, 184

Anthony, Susan B., 214-15n; American Equal Rights Association and, 146, 172, 213—14;

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Douglass and, 217, 219; in Kansas, 178n; George Francis Train and, 178n; woman suffrage and, 217-19

Anti-Corn Law League, 332n

Antietam, Md.: battle of, 117n

Anti-Mason Party, 584n

Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, 176n

Antislavery: in Baptist Church, 364, 364n; in Europe, 15, 26n; in Great Britain, 221—25, 227—28; in Illinois, 593—94; in Massachusetts, 81, 368; in Methodist Episcopal Church, 364, 364n; in Presbyterian Church, 364, 364n; in Rhode Island, 81; Southern extremism and, 607—09

Antislavery newspapers and publications, 55

Antislavery societies, 67—68. See also individual organizations

Apollo Hall, New York City: Douglass speaks at, 259—60

Appalachian Mountains, 484n

Appomattox Court House, Va., 76n, 79n, 109n

Arapahos, 245n

Arawaks, 353n

Aristophanes, 425

Arkansas: politicians in, 555n; Reconstruction in, l79n

Arkwright spinning frame, 306n

Arlington, Va.: Douglass speaks in, 289—92

Arlington House, Arlington, Va., 289

Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va., 289, 430

Army of Northern Virginia (C.S.A.): at battle of Chancellorsville, 545n; at battle of the Wilderness, 236n; John B. Gordon and, 488n; Robert E. Lee and, 488n; James Longstreet and, 212n; surgeons of , 548n; surrender of, 76n

Army of the Potomac (U.S.A.): at battle of Chancellorsville, 545n; at battle of the Wilderness, 236n; command of, 545n; discrimination in, 19; Winfield Scott Hancock and, 567n; George B. McClellan and, 433; officers of, 567n

Arnold, Samuel B., 115n

Arthur, Chester A., 567n; administration of, 538n; Roscoe Conkling and, 571n; Stalwans and, 571n; as vice-presidential candidate, 566—67, 567n, 569, 571, 571n, 580

Ashmun, Jehudi, 421n

Ashmun Collegiate Institute for Colored Youth: See Lincoln University, Oxford, Pa.

623

Asia: Americans in, 178n, 537n; emigration to U.S. from, 601

“Assassination and Its Lessons, The" (Douglass): précis of, 591—93; text of, 107—18

Associated Press, 381n

Atchison, David Rice, 52—53, 53n

Atlanta, Ga., 74n, 488n

Atlantic Monthly, 149

Atlantic Ocean, 53

Atlantic slave trade: Africa and, 606; Nathaniel P. Gordon and, 434—35, 435n; opposition to, 585n; Santo Domingo and, 605—06; suppression of, 434—35

Atlantic telegraph, 176n

“At Last, At Last, The Black Man Has a Future" (Douglass): précis of, 600—01; text of, 266-72

Attucks, Crispus, 415—16, 416n

Auburn, N.Y., 440n

Augusta, Alexander T., 553n

Augusta, Me.: Douglass in, 333n

Auld, Benjamin, 38

Auld, Hugh, 308—09, 309n; Douglass and, 363n, 584n

Auld, Lucretia Anthony, 136, 136n

Auld, Rowena, 135n

Auld, Sophia, 38, 309n

Auld, Thomas: antislavery sentiments of, 137, Douglass and, 135n, 136, 136n, 362n, 363n, 584n; Douglass's reunion with, 32, 32n, 477— 78, 486—87; health of, 478; manumits slaves, 137—38n; sells Douglass, 181n

Aunt Katy, 136n

Austria, 64n, 120, 162n, 196n; compared to U.S., 64; government of, 324, 499; Hungarian revolution and, 120n; religious liberty in, 599

Autobiography of an Octogenarian (Withers), 548n

Babcock, Orville, 281n

Bacon Academy, Colchester, Conn., 298n

Baez, Buenaventura, 281n, 604

Bahamas, 346n

Bailey, Frederick Augustus Washington: See Douglass, Frederick

Bailey, Thomas, 137n

Ball, Thomas, 431n

Baltimore, Md., 31, 39m, 112, 128n, 135n, 137, 137n, 142n, 330, 477, 498n; cholera epidemic of 1832, 40n; Douglass in, 32, 39—41 , 52n, 342, 475, 489-99, 498n, 584, 617—18;

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Baltimore, Md. (continued) Douglass Institute in, 86, 88, 90; Douglass speaks in, 38—50, 86—96, 443—74, 477, 496503, 510, 542—46, 600, 603—04; education of blacks in, 542—43n, 545; Fells Point in, 38, 43, 52, 498n; free blacks in, 542n; Andrew Johnson speaks in, 159n; mobs in, 498n, 523; newspapers in, 478, 603, 617—18; press of, 443; racial discrimination in, 498, 498n, 542— 43n, 545; slave punishment in, 43, 52, 498— 99; slave trade in, 544, 600

Baltimore American, 603, 617—18

Baltimore Gazette, 617—18

Baltimore Sun, 478, 617-18

Bancroft, George, 110n

Bangor, Me.: Douglass in, 333n; Douglass speaks in, 601—02

Bank of Maryland, 498n

Banks, Nathaniel P., 115; Bureau of Free Labor and, 520n; criticism of, 59, 61—62; Reconstruction policy of, 59, 60n, 61n, 61—62; slaves and, 68; speaks in Boston, Mass., 61n

Banneker, Benjamin, 91

Baptist Church, 360; antislavery in, 364, 364n; blacks in, 208; Emancipators in, 364, 364n; Friends of Humanity and, 364n; ministers in, 185, 520n; persecution of, 610; in slave states, 364, 364n, 456n

Barnes, Albert, 363

Barnum, Phineas T., 577—78n; American Museum and, 113, 577; as mayor of Bridgeport, Conn., 578; William Tillman and, 92n

Barth, Heinrich, 94, 94n

Bassett, Ebenezer Don Carlos, 204n

Batavia, N.Y., 107n

Batchelor, Daniel, 533

Battle Creek, Mich, 159n, 276n

“Battle Hymn of the Republic" (Howe), 183n

Bayard, Thomas Francis, Sr., 472, 472n, 604

Bayly, Thomas Henry, 26n

Beardstown, Ill., 110n

Beaufort, S.C., 92n

Beecher, Henry Ward, 45, 75, 133, 135n; Andrew Johnson and, 134n, 592

Beethoven Octette (Washington, DC), 289

“Before a Collection Made For the Society For the Propagation of the Gospel" (Heber): quoted, 346

Belfast, Me.: Douglass speaks in, 357n

Belgium, 223, 224n

Belle Isle, Richmond, Va., 114n, 133, 133n

INDEX

Benjamin, Judah P., 85n, 117n

Benson, George W., 276n

Benton, Thomas Hart, 471

Berkeley, George, 514n; quoted, 514

Berlin, Germany, 287—88n

Bermuda, 113n

Bertonneau, Arnold, 27—28n; honored at public dinner, 24; Lincoln meets with, 28n; travels to Washington, D.C., 25n

Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Baltimore, Md., 38, 39—40nn, 542n; Douglass at, 542—43, 603; Douglass attends, 39

Bethlehem, 87

Bible: brought to New World, 346; defense of slavery and, 118, 263—64, 412

Biblical quotations and allusions, 111, 111n, 117, 119, 140n, 157, 157n, 168, 174, 210, 232, 244, 249, 266, 291 , 356, 357, 367, 378, 390, 437, 506, 519, 569, 576, 582, 612; abolitionism and, 84; Abraham in, 452; Apocalypse in, 245; Beatitudes in, 115—16; Cain in, 583, 583n; City Upon the Hill in, 453; defense of slavery in, 118, 118n, 249, 263—64; Ethiopia in, 480; Eve in, 218, 218n; Exodus in, 171, 187, 230, 272, 441—42; Garden of Eden in, 345; Genesis in, 545; Golden Rule in, 249, 249n, 366; Hagar and Ishmael in, 452n; Herod the Great in, 504; Isaiah in, 544; Jacob in, 433, 433n; Jesus and His teachings in, 10, 13, 46, 56, 56n, 66, 117, 138n, 198, 248, 466, 474. 482, 495, 543, 576; Job in, 247; Judas lscariot in, 123, 123n; Laban in, 433n; Last Supper in, 490; Lazarus and the rich man in, 55, 73, 73n; Lord’s Prayer in, 593; Lot in, 520; Lot’s wife in, 115, 115n; Moses in, 100, 112,433n; Noah in, 32, 32n, 42; Paul (Saul) in, 133, 134m, 327. 367; pride warned against in, 88; prodigal son in, 327—28, 337—38, 485—86, 486n, 526; Psalms in, 140, 140n, 299, 346, 373, 507. 576, 581; Red Sea in, 97; Saul’s conversion in, 327; Sermon on the Mount in, 10, 129, 452; Simeon in, 87, 87n; slavery and, 55, 183, 364; Sodom in, 520; Ten Commandments in, 315; wealth criticized in, 393

Big Bethel, Va.: battle of, 545

Birchard Hall, Fremont, Ohio: Douglass at, 614

Bird, Francis W., 24

Bimey, James G.: as presidential candidate, 296, 296n; quoted, 363

Bismarck, Otto von, 274n

Black, Jeremiah, 340, 340n, 603

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INDEX

Blackburn, Luke Pryor, 113—14n

Black Codes: black migration and, 510; interracial marriage and, 105n; Andrew Johnson on, 105—06; in Kentucky, 375n; in Mississippi, 105n; in South Carolina, 105n; vagrancy and, 105n. See also Black laws; Discrimination; Jim Crowism

Black conventions: in Boston, Mass., 324, 335, 335n; Douglass at, 293, 324, 329, 335; in Nashville, Tenn., 375; in New Orleans, La., 293. See also National Negro conventions

Black emigration movement: to Africa, 565; to Haiti, 57n, 500, 501n; to Jamaica, 500—01, 501n; to Nicaragua, 501. See also Colonization of blacks

Black laws, 82, 82n, 83, 594

Black migration to Midwest: black labor and, 530; causes of, 510, 515, 516—22, 525-26, 527—29, 530—33; Democratic Party and, 528; described as “Exodusters” and, 510; Douglass's opposition to, 497n, 512, 514—22, 525— 30, 565; financial cost of, 520—21; leadership of, 517n, 520—21n; from Louisiana, 497n, 510, 512, 525; from Mississippi, 497n, 510, 512, 525; opponents of, 521n; relief efforts on behalf of, 507, 507n, 520—21nn; Republican Party and, 516, 527—28; from Tennessee, 497n, 510; from Texas, 497n, 510

Blacks: accusations of racial inferiority of, 65— 66, 71, 88, 91—95, 119, 282—83, 370; as American citizens, 67, 98—99, 120n, 143, 145, 266, 334, 361, 420, 499, 531, 598; baptism controversy over, 262—63, 365—66, 411— 12, 544; benevolent societies and, 419n, 420—21; John Brown and, 531n, 531—33; characteristics of, 57—58, 90—91, 94—95, 129, 517; civil rights of, 46—50, 56, 78—79, 98. 260—61, 518, 546; Civil War and, 95, 132—33, 177, 211—12, 297—98, 406—07, 416—17, 541; compared to Chinese, 248—50; compared to Germans, 65, 386; compared to Indians, 57, 119, 129—30, 206—07, 245—46, 265, 385, 599; compared to Irish, 59, 65, 386; compared to Jews, 386, 610; compared to Russian serfs, 267, 610; condition of, in U.S., 119, 245—46, 392—93; Confederacy and, 56; as contraband, 68n; Democratic party and, 298—99, 329, 426, 600, 601—03; education of, 87—96, 372, 413, 500, 542—43, 545—46, 600, 619; as elected officials, 237, 237n, 418, 595, 598; employment of, 231, 284, 418, 545—46, 610; ethnol-

625

ogy of, 93—96, 153; as farmers, 379, 385-88, 393—94, 609—10; fifteenth amendment and, 271, 360, 361; Freedman's Bank and, 373n; Freedmen's Bureau and, 572n; future of, in U.S., 57, 119, 121, 130, 202—04, 206—07; intellectual capabilities of, 88—96, 392-93; labor unions and, 231n, 231—37; 1andowning by, 202, 248, 610; Lincoln and, 92, 431—40, 482, 591; migration of, 206, 372—73, 385, 394, 496, 497, 497n, 500—01; personal liberty laws and, 53n; physical appearance of, 207—08; political rights of, 27—28, 46—50, 98, 260—61. 493, 528—29, 541—42; population of, in New York State, 581n; population of, in U.S., 130, 142, 178, 318, 318n, 520, 520n, 595; population of, in Washington, D.C. , 468; postemancipation achievements of, 361—62, 428-29, 497—98, 499—500, 503, 515, 527, 544—45; prediction of gradual extinction of, 515; racial prejudice against, 91—96, 117—18, 120, 385, 482, 522, 545—46; relations with ex-slaveholders of, 487—89; religious characteristics of, 56, 94, 421n, 498n; Republican Party and, 297—99, 328, 426, 440, 442-43, 600, 60103; sharecropping and, 518, 530; Charles Sumner and, 398—401; as taxpayers, 525 , 525n, 527; as teachers, 300, 542, 545—46; U.S. Constitution and, 67, 80n, 82—85; as voters, 333—35, 335n, 339, 418, 426, 442—43, 480, 493n, 505, 511, 581; women’s rights and, 173. See also Black soldiers; Black suffrage; Free blacks; Freedmen; Slaves

Black soldiers: advocates of, 37n; in American Revolution, 72, 415—16; in Charleston, S.C., 71n; in combat, 56—57n, 91n, 91—92; compensation for, 20, 25—26; Confederacy and, 27n, 55n, 55—56, 85n, 143; Conscription Act (1864) and, 67, 67n; as depositors in Freedman's Bank, 550n, 553n; discrimination against, 25—26, 95, 117, 544—45, 591; enlistment of, 20, 23n, 30n, 93n, 297—98, 324, 406, 423n, 541, 545, 593, 601; Enrollment Act (1863) and, 67n; as laborers and servants, 56—57n; Lincoln and, 55, 433, 434; in Louisiana, 27—28n; northern press and, 55n; number of, 84, 84n, 117, 338, 406, 434; as officers, 20; promotion of, 20, 25—26; retention of, after war, 84n; from Rhode Island, 415n; in Richmond, Va., 71n; valor of, 56—57n, 117, 129, 177, 338; veterans organizations of, 563; in War of 1812, 72, 415. See also individual regiments; Union Army

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