Appendix A. PRECIS OF ALTERNATE TEXTS
l. Chosen Text: THE MISSION OF THE WAR. 13 JANUARY 1864. NEW YORK, NEW YORK. c.8,210 words. Reprinted on pages 3—24.
SPEECH DELIVERED 10 DECEMBER 1863, Concert Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Manuscript, c.9,000 words. Speech File, reel 14, frames 434—46, FD Papers, DLC. States that the Democratic party favored war with England at the beginning of the Civil War as a way of protecting slavery. Urges the government of the United States to oppose all schemes for colonizing blacks in Africa or elsewhere. Submits that both as soldiers and as laborers, blacks should receive equal pay and equal opportunity to improve their lot. Warns that a slight change in the balance of power between the Democratic and Republican parties could result in the use of military power to thwart the higher aims of the war. Mentions Horatio Seymour as the leading public ﬁgure in the Democratic party. Afﬁrms that the rebels exploited racial prejudice to stimulate the draft riots in New York City in the summer of 1863 while General Robert E. Lee was overrunning Pennsylvania and threatening Philadelphia. Cites as an example of northern prejudice the paying of black soldiers only one-half the wages received by their white counterparts. Charges that Yankee officers degraded black ofﬁcers in New Orleans by refusing to salute them according to their rank. Cautions the North to realize that to win the game it is playing with the South it must play its “black card.”
2. Chosen Text: THE ASSASSINATlON AND ITS LESSONS. 13 FEBRUARY 1866. WASHINGTON, D.C. c.2,400 words. Reprinted on pages 106—18.
a. SPEECH DELIVERED 1 JUNE 1865, Cooper Institute, New York, New York. Manuscript, c.8,000 words. Speech File, reel 19, frames 429—41, FD Papers, DLC. Charges that blacks have been prevented from publicly exhibiting their sorrow at Abraham Lincoln’s death; cites an attempt to exclude blacks from Lincoln’s funeral procession in New York City. Offers reasons for the profound trust that blacks placed in Lincoln. Commends Lincoln’s administration for ofﬁcially recognizing Haiti and Liberia. Regards Lincoln’s death as the beginning of a new era of stability that will be characterized by social justice, a new consciousness of national honor and strength, and increased international influence. Considers Andrew Johnson to be effectively controlling the government; predicts that traitors will be punished, loyal men protected, and black men enfranchised. Believes that the triumph of the Union has inspired a worldwide hope for the establishment of free institutions; refers speciﬁcally to Mexico. Argues that the war was the inevitable outgrowth of the planting of slavery in American soil. Declares that
all great nations periodically experience upheavals that are brought on by reaction to legalized injustice; points to the Revolution as a prime example in earlier American history. Suggests that the events of the last four years have placed slaveholders in accurate perspective; future generations will remember such barbarity as the brutality at Andersonville and the murder of Lincoln. Maintains that efforts by northern papers to absolve the South of responsibility for the assassination are unpersuasive because the shooting of Lincoln is consistent with the South’s record of savagery, which includes the massacre at Fort Pillow, Tennessee. Claims that southerners planned to assassinate Lincoln in Baltimore prior to his ﬁrst inauguration and were thwarted only by a change in Lincoln’s itinerary. Observes that Booth is no guiltier than the leaders of the Confederacy. Regards Booth’s ten-day odyssey and death as sufficient punishment. Recounts in some detail the circumstances of the assassination. Emphasizes the smooth transition from Lincoln’s administration to that of Johnson. Explains that the public’s adoration of Lincoln is the result of his image as the quintessential American. Describes Lincoln as plain, strong, earnest, digniﬁed, and amiable. Praises Lincoln for having conversed with him without condescension and for having outgrown his approval of colonization. Recalls a meeting with Lincoln in which they conversed for an hour while the president kept Governor William Buckingham of Connecticut waiting in an adjoining room.
b. SPEECH DELIVERED 24 OCTOBER 1865, Parker Fraternity Lecture, Music Hall, Boston, Massachusetts. Stenographic, c.2,400 words. Boston Commonwealth, 28 October 1865. Declares that any vote in favor of racial discrimination insults the memory of Abraham Lincoln and reopens his wounds. Eulogizes Lincoln for being the first president to invite a black man to the White House. Recalls a time when Lincoln refused to shorten a conversation with him to accommodate Governor William Buckingham of Connecticut. Avers that the antebellum Union was too weak to denounce the suppression of the Hungarian revolution. Exults in the triumph of the North, which it achieved despite the pessimism of other governments, treason, and assassination. Observes that the renewed conﬁdence of the United States is inﬂuencing the peoples of despotic nations, including Mexico. Argues that Americans must learn from the war and the assassination that incorporating injustice into law inexorably leads to tragic consequences. Explains that men such as John C. Calhoun and John Wilkes Booth were products, not primary causes, of the nation’s plight. Suggests that the drama of the struggle between freedom and slavery would have been incomplete without a termination like the assassination; when men think of slavery hereafter, they will think of murder and treachery. Enumerates instances of barbarous behavior on the part of the South, including threats made against Lincoln before he went to Washington and atrocities at Andersonville. Regards Andrew Johnson’s kindness toward the South as predictable for a southerner. Assails Henry Ward Beecher for matching Johnson's willingness to forgive unrepentant rebels. Refers to Governor Benjamin F. Perry
of South Carolina, who, like other southern leaders, is sorry not for his crime but for the fact that it did not succeed. Decries the restoration of property and political standing to southern murderers and traitors. Fears that the northern cause is on the verge of being lost through either imbecility or the treachery of President Johnson. Contrasts Jefferson Davis, who played the role of traitor openly, with Johnson, who moved from apparent opposition to southern villainy as vice president to collaboration with the rebels as president. Predicts that Davis will soon be given a pardon.
3. Chosen Text: SOURCES OF DANGER TO THE REPUBLIC, 7 FEBRUARY 1867. ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI. c.9,980 words. Reprinted on pages 149—72.
a. SPEECH DELIVERED 12 JANUARY 1867, Mozart Hall, Cincinnati, Ohio. Stenographic/narrative, c.4,000 words. Cincinnati Daily Gazette, 14 January 1867. Aﬁirms that despite Lincoln’s greatness he abolished slavery out of military necessity rather than principle. Predicts that any gains made by black people in Reconstruction will be due more to the villainy of the South than to the North’s sense of justice; claims to be glad that the South has resisted the Fourteenth Amendment and that it is not a safe place for either northern men or northern capital. Argues that consent by the Senate is not an adequate safeguard against abuse of the president’s appointing power because the president may make appointments when the Senate is not in session. Criticizes the provision for a second presidential term on the ground that it allows the president to break with the party that elected him. Denounces secret diplomacy because it permits the president to lead the country to the brink of war without the assent of Congress. Maintains that any reconstruction of the government that fails to enfranchise blacks in the South will be disastrous to the future of the nation. Submits three reasons southern blacks should be granted the right to vote: (1) they deserve to be enfranchised by virtue of their courageous support of the Union army; (2) the North may again need southern blacks; and (3) Negro enfranchisement would prevent the South from finding opportunity to renew its rebellion.
b. SPEECH DELIVERED 23 MARCH 1867, First Methodist Episcopal Church, Chicago, Illinois. Stenographic/narrative, c.3,300 words. Chicago Tribune, 25 March 1867. Submits that it would be no less appropriate for the Lord’s Prayer to petition daily bread for white men only than for the Constitution to restrict its protection to whites. Suggests that the failure of William H. Seward to win the presidency may be attributed to the Wigwam, the site in Chicago of the 1860 Republican National Convention. Deplores the racial restrictions in the constitution of Illinois. Counsels taking the appointing power away from the president. Believes that the Supreme Court would check congressional arbitrariness more equitably than does the president with his power of veto. Asserts that although Millard Fillmore was elected vice president as an abolitionist, he served the slave
power after becoming president. Observes that prior to assuming the presidency Andrew Johnson seemed to take a stronger antislavery position than Lincoln. Suggests that one of the mysteries surrounding Lincoln’s assassination is the intimacy of Johnson with John Wilkes Booth and others. Wonders whether the United States would prosper with no president at all; mentions the emancipation, which in ten years will be perceived even by the South as a blessing. Rebukes Illinois and Ohio for retaining laws that discriminate against black people and run counter to the spirit of the age.
c. SPEECH DELIVERED 23 OCTOBER 1867, Central Methodist Episcopal Church, Newark, New Jersey. Stenographic/narrative, c.2,400 words. National AntiSlavery Standard, 9 November 1867. Affirms that the United States has lost international standing in recent years; as late as 1848, when Europe was convulsed by revolution, the United States was comparatively quiet and strong. Decries the failure of the federal government to punish the men who shot down blacks in New Orleans; reproaches President Andrew Johnson for entertaining Mayor John T. Monroe, the chief butcher of New Orleans. Minimizes the antislavery impact of the work of the American Tract Society and of efforts at moral suasion in general. Promotes the women’s suffrage cause. Comments that it would be dangerous for Louis Napoleon to rule with the degree of autocratic power and contempt for the public will demonstrated by Johnson. Acknowledges that Johnson possesses a vigorous mind. Argues that the rebels and traitors who conspired to assassinate Lincoln must have known that Johnson, who had articulated threats against them, would act in their favor as president; if they did not know it, they behaved like men jumping from the frying pan into the ﬁre. Notes that Ohio opposes black suffrage and that New York will probably do so as well. Warns against political exploitation of the authority and the responsibility to impose equal, impartial suffrage throughout the nation. Submits that blacks should not bear the burdens of citizenship without access to its rights.
4. Chosen Text: WILLIAM THE SILENT. 8 FEBRUARY 1869. CINCINNATI, OHIO. c.4,750 words. Reprinted on pages 186—99.
a. SPEECH DELIVERED 18 JANUARY 1869, Cooper Institute, New York, New York. Stenographic, c.3,100 words. New York Tribune, 19 January 1869. Mentions that Charles V was fifty-eight years old when he abdicated. States that although Philip II resided in Madrid and nominally committed the government of the Netherlands to the regent, assisted by a cardinal, he retained control. Affirms that Philip ruled the Netherlands far more oppressively than George III ruled the American colonies. Recounts some of the ways used by Philip to terrorize and kill Protestants. Recalls the execution of eighteen thousand Protestants by the duke of Alva, who also killed thousands more in battle. Compares the reluctance of the Dutch to renounce the divine right of kings with the refusal of the North during the Civil War
to reject slavery until its military situation became desperate. Observes that it must have seemed as imprudent for the Dutch to take up arms against Spain as for John Brown to invade Virginia. Asserts that since blacks are denied the elective franchise they are still slaves. Draws an extended analogy between the experience of the Dutch and that of the North in the early phase of the Civil War: both were afflicted with incompetent soldiers, treacherous generals, and nearly crushing defeats. Views Philip as a victim of the dark, superstitious age in which he lived. Quotes Byron in referring to the mild-mannered cruelty of the duke of Alva. Declares the victory of the Netherlands after eighty years of patriotic struggle against overwhelming odds to be one of the marvelous exploits in human history. Remembers seeing Lincoln struggling to repress a tear in response to the weight of care that he bore. Notes that William was assassinated by a man whom he had assisted on the previous day.
b. SPEECH DELIVERED 22 FEBRUARY 1869, Rouse’s Hall, Peoria, Illinois. Stenographic/summary, c.1,800 words. Peoria Daily Transcript, 23 February 1869. Observes that Philip II granted a nominal regency to his sister while making clear to the people of the Netherlands that he was the monarch. Lists some of the forms of torture and execution used by Philip to rid the country of eighteen thousand “heretics.” Notes that many other Protestants were killed in battle. States that Dutch women aided their fathers and brothers in war by pouring hot tar and pitch on the heads of Spanish troops. Ridicules as irrational the fear of those who would be willing for blacks to vote if they could be prevented from holding office; contrasts the potential influence of four million blacks as against eighty million whites. Asserts that early in the sixteenth century America was ﬁlling the coffers of Spain with gold and silver. Compares the Netherlands’ struggle against powerful Spain with John Brown’s invasion of Virginia with twenty-two men. Expresses admiration for the courage of the Dutch by saying that if he were not a black he would be a Dutchman. Sees the ﬂoundering of incompetent generals as a point of similarity between the early military efforts of the Dutch and those of the North in the Civil War. Affirms that Confederate prison camps, which he characterizes as “Andersonvilles,” were paradises compared to those endured by the Netherlands. Explains that Philip, whom the pope called a beloved son, thought he was serving God when he repeatedly urged his sister in the Netherlands to suppress the Protestants. Suggests that Philip reasoned that if the Inquisition could prevent the Reformation from taking root in Spain, it could do the same in the Netherlands. Characterizes the duke of Alva as a devout, mild-mannered tool of Spanish cruelty. Compares William of Orange to William Tell, George Washington, Toussaint L’Ouverture, and Abraham Lincoln. Afﬁrms that the heart of the people is always right, although leaders may err. Recalls that Lincoln desired to be identiﬁed with the people. Observes that William and Lincoln were implicitly trusted by the people they each served. Mentions that William’s assassin had relentlessly followed him for seven years. States that Philip had offered a large reward and a