Longinus on the Sublime.
Sublimity is a cirtain high and elivated style of communication; and in no other way than this, have the greatest of poets and Historians distinguished themselves, and have seized immortality with their celebrity. For the sublimes do not lead the listners unto persuasion, but unt ecstacy; and with all the amazement of persuasion and of what ever has referance to charms, it always hold fast in wonder; while indeed, the being persuaded, as in all other things, lie with ourselves; And these showing the power irresistable force, over every one listning are thus arrayed. And indeed we may view the experience of invention, the order and management appearin with labour, not from one,
not nor two, but from the whole tenor of the words. Sublimity where it is displayed to advantage, like lightening, bears down all before it, and remarkebly shows the great power of the orator. ---------------------------------------------------------------
it is proper for you to know, O Friend, that in ordinary life, nothing is considered great, the contempt of which is a mark of g greatness; such as riches, honour, glory, power, and whatever gliters outwardly, would not seem, to a prudent man, excellently good, the contemplation of which, is not excessively good.
Wherefore men admire those, who are able to posses these things, but who through greatness of soul dispise them, more than they do those, who do posses them. In this way we must attentively consider among poems and oration for sublime conceptions, lest some one should have such an appearance of sublimity, in which much external show should be presented, but its parts being laid open, should be found so bombastic, that the contempt of them would be more honourable than their admiration. For by nature our mind so effected by sublimity, that receiving something that is vast, it is as full of gladness and inward glorying, as if itself had produce that which it had heard. When therefore as it often happens, any
thing discourse is heard, by a man prudent and acquanted with lanquage, does not direct his mind to the sublime, nor leave any more contemplation to the understanding the the words heard; but fails, and if he would consider it in connection, it tends to nothing at all; this would not be true, but only the security of the discourse alone. For that is great, the contemplation of which is extensive, and resistance to which, is dificult, or rather imposible, and the recolection of which is strong and unfailing.
In a word Sublimity has a regard to those things, that are both worthy, and true and continualy pleasing to all. For when, one and the same thing seem to be the same concerning these things, to those of differant occuptions,
of life, zeal, age and language, than this decission and concurrance, of discordant testimonies, obtains a strong and irresistable belief for sublimity. - - - - - - - - - -
Since, as one would say, there are five prolific sources of sublimity (the power of speech, without which nothing can be done, being first laid down, as were for a foundation for these models), the first and the best of these, is sublimity of thoughts, as I have said in my remarks on Xenophon. The second, a forcible and enthusiastic pathos; but these two source of sublimity, for the most part, are indigenous constituents. The third is the formation of ornaments. And these are two-fold, some of thoughts, and others of words ) The fourth, a noble style of utterance, a part of which again, lies in the choice of words, both in figurative and finishd expression. The fifth, and that which includes the preceeding ones, is
is an arrangement dignified and elivated. Come then, we will consider those things comprehended in each of these forms, premising some such a thing as this, that of these five sources of the sublime, Caecilious has rejected one, that is he has neglected pathos. But if in deed, both of these, as if one, viz, the sublime and the pathetic, seemed to him in every respect, to be united and to be of the same nature with each other, he errs; for there are passions, that are both seperated from sublimity and inferior to it; such as sorrow, grief, fear; And on the contrary, there are many sublimities, different from pathos, as in addition to other things, those hold expressions of the poet, concerning the Giants,
T "They wished to place Ossa on Olympus; and on Ossa, Pilion waving with leaves, that they might climb to heaven." Yet what follows these words are still more sublime, "And they would have done it.— Indeed even among orators, pompous and displayed [ paneugeyiss] panegyrick, abound every where with the vast and sublime, but are destitute, for the most part, of the pathetic. Hence some of the orators being pathetical, are
do not panegyrize, while on the contrary those that panegyrize, are not pathetical. But if, again on the other hand, Caecilius did consider the passions to contribute to sublimity, and that did not think them worthy of
e recollection, he was greatly deceived. For I would boldly essert, that nothing is so sublime, as a suitable degree of animated pathos, as if breathed by a certain fury and enthuastic spirit, and as if foretelling events, by the inspiration of Apollo. -----------------------------------------------
Continuation of Section 16th ----------------------------------------------- But when, as if by a suden impulse of God, and as it were inspired by Appolo, he swore by those great men of Greece; "It cannot be that you err, No! I sware by those who died at Marithon"; It is manifest by this one figure of an oath, which here I call an apostrophe, he presents our ancesstors diefied, who dying thus, should be sworn to, as gods, and
to presents to the judges the prudence of those M who had there fought, and also changing the nature of his example into for an elivated sublimity and pathos, and for that persuasion worthy of a new and sublime oath, he seems even at once, to throw his eloquence as if a certain physician and an evil repelling remedy, into the bosom of his hearers; that they being spurd by his encomiums, resolved to achieve nothing less glorious, in this battle against Phillip.
Venuntamen quoniam primum genus (dico autem id quod ex animi
g magnitudine venit) partem obtinet inter caeteras praestantissimam, oportet etiom hic, (sit licet haec res potius dono natur[a] accipienda quàm labore acquirenda) tamen, quantum possumus, animos nostros ad sublimia alere ed et tanquam gravidas amplitudine quâdam nobili semper efficere. Quo, dicet aliquis, modo? Scripsi in alio etiam loco, quod hujusmodi Sublimitas est Echo magnitudinis animi; Unde etiam sine n voce admirationi aliquando est nudus per se sensus ab eam ipsam, quam ostentat, magnanimitatem; velut silentium Ajacis in libro, qui inscribitur De manibus, magnum est et omni seremone Sublimius. Promo igitur in loco omnino necessarium est ante oculos Lectoris constituere id, ex quo narcitur; nempe quod verus Orator debet habere animum non humilem et abjectum; neque enim fieri potest, ut illi, qui per omnem vitam suam cogitant curantque parva et servilia, proferant aliquid admira-ndum